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儿童权利委员会将于2016年9月13日至30日在日内瓦召开第七十三届会议(部分翻译)

儿童权利委员会
背景信息

2016年9月7日

儿童权利委员会将于2016年9月13日至30日在日内瓦威尔逊宫召开会议,根据《儿童权利公约》条款及其任择议定书,审议瑙鲁、塞拉利昂、新西兰、南非、沙特阿拉伯和苏里南促进和保护儿童权利的问题。

在开幕会议上,委员会将通过其议程和工作方案,并讨论工作安排和工作方法。

两年一次的一般讨论日将于9月23日上午10点至下午6点在万国宫第十九号会议室举行,今年将重点关注儿童权利和环境问题。一般讨论日旨在深化对《公约》内容以及具体条款或专题所造成影响的理解。2016年的讨论旨在促进理解儿童权利与环境之间的关系,明确在儿童权利相关法律、政策和做法中充分考虑环境问题所需的工作,以及确保环境相关法律、政策和做法是体恤儿童的。点此查看关于一般讨论日的更多信息。

会议期间,委员会还将讨论未来工作安排和审议并跟进缔约国报告的程序。委员会将特别讨论与工作方法相关的问题,尤其是关于一项来文程序的任择议定书的问题。委员会还将继续关于跟进条约机构强化进程问题的讨论。

委员会将继续制定三项关于青少年、流落街头儿童以及移民背景儿童的一般性意见,其将与保护所有移徙工人及其家庭成员权利委员会联合制定和发布。

瑙鲁将根据《公约》提交首份报告CRC/C/NRU/1-6

塞拉利昂将根据《公约》提交第三至第五次合并定期报告CRC/C/SLE/3-5。委员会关于塞拉利昂第二次定期报告(2008年5月审议)的结论性意见和建议请参见:CRC/C/SLE/CO/2

新西兰将根据《公约》提交第五次定期报告CRC/C/NZL/5并根据《儿童权利公约关于买卖儿童、儿童卖淫和儿童色情制品的任择议定书》提交首份报告CRC/C/OPSC/NZL/1。委员会关于新西兰根据《公约》提交的第三至第四次合并定期报告(2011年1月审议)的结论性意见和建议请参见:CRC/C/NZL/CO/3-4

南非将根据《公约》提交第二次定期报告CRC/C/ZAF/2并根据《儿童权利公约关于买卖儿童、儿童卖淫和儿童色情制品的任择议定书》提交首份报告CRC/C/OPSC/ZAF/1。委员会关于南非根据《公约》提交的首份报告(2000年1月审议)的结论性意见和建议请参见:CRC/C/15/Add.122

沙特阿拉伯将根据《公约》提交第三至第四次合并定期报告CRC/C/SAU/3-4。委员会关于沙特阿拉伯第二次定期报告(2006年1月审议)的结论性意见和建议请参见:CRC/C/SAU/CO/2

苏里南将呈交其根据《公约》提交的第三至第四次合并定期报告CRC/C/SUR/3-4。委员会关于苏里南第二次定期报告(2007年1月审议)的结论性意见和建议请参见:CRC/C/SUR/CO/2

英文和法文版的详细会议报道请见联合国新闻处的页面,进一步的信息,包括缔约国的报告复件、所有相关文件和工作方案,请见委员会届会网页

委员会是一个由独立专家组成的机构,成立于1991年,旨在监督《儿童权利公约》各缔约国落实公约的情况。公约为广泛的儿童权利赋予国际法保障。委员会还监督《公约》的三项任择议定书的落实情况:第一项议定书关于儿童卷入武装冲突问题,第二项则关于买卖儿童、儿童卖淫和儿童色情制品问题,第三项关于来文程序的任择议定书于2014年4月14日生效。

到目前为止,共有196个国家批准或加入公约,使其成为全球最被广泛接受的国际人权文书。只有一个国家:美利坚合众国已经签署但尚未批准该公约。公约各缔约国应向委员会派出代表,提交其关于落实儿童权利的做法的报告。各国必须在加入公约后的前两年进行报告,随后每五年进行报告。委员会审议每一份报告,并以“结论性意见和建议”的形式对缔约国提出委员会的关注问题及建议。所有委员会审议各国的结论性意见和建议可在此查看。

The Convention on the Rights of the Child

The General Assembly adopted the Convention unanimously on 20 November 1989, 30 years after the adoption of the Declaration on the Rights of the Child. The Convention renders States parties legally accountable for their actions towards children. Work on drafting the Convention began in 1979 – the International Year of the Child – at the Commission on Human Rights. The Convention was opened for signature on 26 January 1990. That day, 61 countries signed it, a record first-day response. It entered into force just seven months later, on 2 September 1990.

Ratifying the Convention requires a review of national legislation to ensure it meets the provisions of the treaty. The Convention, inter alia, stipulates that every child has the right to life, and that States shall ensure to the maximum extent possible the survival and development of the child; that every child has the right to a name and nationality from birth; and that the child's best interests shall be a primary consideration when they are dealt with by courts, welfare institutions or administrative authorities. The Convention recognizes the right of children to be heard.

States shall ensure that each child enjoys full rights without discrimination or distinction of any kind, and that children should not be separated from their parents, unless by competent authorities for their well-being. States shall facilitate reunification of families by permitting travel into, or out of, their territories and protect children from physical or mental harm and neglect, including sexual abuse or exploitation. Children with disabilities shall have the right to education, special treatment and care; primary education shall be free and compulsory and discipline in school should respect the child's dignity; capital punishment or life imprisonment shall not be imposed for crimes committed before the age of 18; no child under 15 should take any part in hostilities and children exposed to armed conflict shall receive special protection. Children of minority and indigenous populations shall freely enjoy their own cultures, religions and languages.

Optional Protocols


In May 2000, the General Assembly adopted the two Optional Protocols to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the involvement of children in armed conflict and on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography. The Optional Protocols entered into force in 2002. Currently, 165 countries have ratified the Optional Protocol on the involvement of children in armed conflict; and 173 States have ratified the Optional Protocol on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography. A third Optional Protocol was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 19 December 2011. It provides for a Communications Procedure to allow individual children to submit complaints regarding specific violations of their rights under the Convention and the first two Optional Protocols. To date, 27 States have ratified it: Albania, Andorra, Argentina, Belgium, Bolivia, Czech Republic, Chile, Costa Rica, Denmark, El Salvador, Finland, France, Gabon, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Monaco, Mongolia, Montenegro, Peru, Portugal, Samoa, Slovakia, Spain, Thailand and Uruguay.

Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography


Although the Convention requires States parties to prohibit the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography, this Optional Protocol extends the measures that States parties must undertake to protect children from these violations of their human rights. The Optional Protocol not only defines the sale of children, child pornography and child prostitution, but also provides a non-exhaustive list of acts and activities which shall be criminalized by States parties. This criminalization also includes attempts, complicity, or participation in such acts or activities. The Optional Protocol sets out the bases for States parties to assert jurisdiction over actionable practices relating to the sale of children, child prostitution, and child pornography (including extra-territorial legislation) and to make provisions about extradition of alleged offenders. Based on the principle of the best interests of the child, the Optional Protocol also sets forth provisions for protecting and assisting child victims during all stages of the criminal justice process. Preventive measures, as well as redress, rehabilitation and recovery of child victims, are also covered. For the implementation of all these provisions, the Optional Protocol asks for a close collaboration among States parties.

Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict


The Optional Protocol establishes that no person under the age of 18 shall be subject to compulsory recruitment into regular armed forces, and imposes an obligation on States to raise the minimum age for voluntary recruitment to at least 16 years. Upon ratification of or accession to the Optional Protocol, countries must deposit a binding declaration stating their minimum age for voluntary recruitment and the safeguards in place to ensure that that recruitment is voluntary. States Parties to the Protocol shall also ensure that members of their armed forces under 18 years of age do not take direct part in hostilities. In addition, armed groups separate from the armed forces of a State should not, under any circumstances, recruit or use in hostilities persons under 18. States parties are required to take all feasible measures to prevent the recruitment and use of children by any groups, including the criminalization of such practices.

Optional Protocol on a Communications Procedure


This new Optional Protocol empowers children to complain about specific violations of their human rights under the Convention and its first two optional protocols by States parties to this Optional Protocol to an international body. It establishes a procedure to bring complaints under the Convention similar to those that already exist for other core human rights treaties. Upon receiving a complaint, the Committee will examine it to determine whether the Convention has been violated. The Committee will guarantee that child-sensitive procedures and safeguards are put in place to prevent the manipulation of the child by those acting on his or her behalf under the Protocol. While it is examining the complaint, the Committee may request the State to adopt interim measures to prevent possible irreparable damage to the child. It may also request protection measures to prevent reprisals, including further human rights violations, ill-treatment or intimidation, for having submitted such complaints. If the Convention is found to have been violated, the Committee will make specific recommendations for action to the State responsible. Under the Optional Protocol the Committee may now initiate inquiries into grave and systematic violations of the Convention and its first two Optional Protocols. The Optional Protocol also provides for an inter-state communications procedure. The Committee adopted the rules of procedure for this Optional Protocol (CRC/C/62/3) during its 62nd session.

The Protocol opened for signature on 28 February 2012 and entered into force on 14 April 2014, three months after the deposit of the tenth instrument of ratification.

Committee Membership

The Committee is made up of Experts of high moral standing and recognized competence in the field of children's rights. The following Experts currently serve in the Committee: AHO ASSOUMA Suzanne (Togo); ALDOSERI Amal (Bahrain); AYOUBI IDRISSI Hynd (Morocco); CARDONA LLORENS Jorge (Spain); GASTAUD Bernard (Monaco); GURÁN Peter (Slovakia); KHAZOVA Olga (Russian Federation); KOTRANE Hatem (Tunisia); MADI Gehad (Egypt); MEZMUR Benyam Dawit, (Ethiopia); MUHAMAD SHARIFF Yasmeen (Malaysia); NELSON Clarence (Samoa); NOGUEIRA NETO Wanderlino (Brazil); DE JESÚS OVIEDO FIERRO Sara (Ecuador); PARSI Maria Rita (Italy); RODRÍGUEZ REYES Jose Angel (Venezuela); SANDBERG Kirsten (Norway); and WINTER Renate (Austria).

Mr. Mezmur is the Chairperson. The Vice-Chairpersons are Ms. Aldoseri, Ms. Muhamad Shariff, Ms. De Jesus Oviedo Fierro and Ms. Winter. Ms. Sandberg is the Rapporteur.

Tentative Timetable for Consideration of Reports

Following is a tentative timetable for the consideration of reports from States parties to the Convention during this session:


Monday, 12 September

United Nations Holiday

Tuesday, 13 September

10 a.m.

Opening of the session, adoption of the agenda, organizational matters

3 p.m.

Nauru CRC CRC/C/NRU/1-6

Wednesday, 14 September

10 a.m.

Nauru CRC (continued)

3 p.m.

Sierra Leone CRC CRC/C/SLE/3-5

Thursday, 15 September

10 a.m.

Sierra Leone CRC (continued)

3 p.m.

New Zealand CRC CRC/C/NZL/5

Friday, 16 September

10 a.m.

New Zealand CRC (continued)

3 p.m.

New Zealand OPSC CRC/C/OPSC/NZL/1

Monday, 19 September

10 a.m.

South Africa CRC CRC/C/ZAF/2

3 p.m.

South Africa CRC (continued)

Tuesday, 20 September

10 a.m.

South Africa OPSC CRC/C/OPSC/ZAF/1

3 p.m.

Saudi Arabia CRC CRC/C/SAU/3-4

Wednesday, 21 September

10 a.m.

Saudi Arabia CRC (continued)

3 p.m.

Suriname CRC CRC/C/SUR/3-4

Thursday, 22 September

10 a.m.

Suriname CRC (continued)

3 p.m.

Closed meeting

Friday, 23 September

10 a.m.

Day of General Discussion

3 p.m.

Day of General Discussion

Monday, 26 September

10 a.m.

Closed meeting

3 p.m.

Closed meeting

Tuesday, 27 September

10 a.m.

Closed meeting

3 p.m.

Closed meeting

Wednesday, 28 September

10 a.m.

Closed meeting

3 p.m.

Closed meeting

Thursday, 29 September

10 a.m.

Closed meeting

3 p.m.

Closed meeting

Friday, 30 September

10 a.m.

Closed meeting

3 p.m.

Closed meeting

5 p.m.

Public closing of the session

__________

For use of the information media; not an official record

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