12. Recommendation No. R (94) 12 to Member States on the Independence, Efficiency and Role of Judges (1994)
(Adopted by the Committee of Ministers, 13 October 1994)

The Committee of Ministers, under the terms of Article 15.b of the Statute of the Council of Europe,

Having regard to Article 6 of the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (hereinafter referred to as "the Convention") which provides that "everyone is entitled to a fair and public hearing within a reasonable time by an independent and impartial tribunal established by law";


Noting the essential role of judges and other persons exercising judicial functions in ensuring the protection of human rights and fundamental freedoms;


Conscious of the desirability of ensuring the proper exercise of judicial responsibilities which are a collection of judicial duties and powers aimed at protecting the interests of all persons;

Recommends that governments of member states adopt or reinforce all measures necessary to promote the role of individual judges and the judiciary as a whole and strengthen their independence and efficiency, by implementing, in particular, the following principles:


Principle V – Judicial responsibilities

1. In proceedings, judges have the duty to protect the rights and freedoms of all persons.

2. Judges have the duty and should be given the power to exercise their judicial responsibilities to ensure that the law is properly applied and cases are dealt with fairly, efficiently and speedily.

3. Judges should in particular have the following responsibilities:


g. to undergo any necessary training in order to carry out their duties in an efficient and proper manner.