9. Plan of Action for the second phase (2010-2014) of the World Programme for Human Rights Education (2010)
(A/HRC/15/28, 27 July 2010)
A. Context and definition of human rights education
1. The international community has increasingly expressed consensus on the fundamental contribution of human rights education to the realization of human rights. Human rights education aims at developing an understanding of our common responsibility to make human rights a reality in every community and in society at large. In this sense, it contributes to the long-term prevention of human rights abuses and violent conflicts, the promotion of equality and sustainable development and the enhancement of participation in decision-making processes within a democratic system. 
2. Provisions on human rights education have been incorporated into many international instruments and documents including the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 1948 (art. 26); the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, 1965 (art. 7); the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, 1966 (art. 13); the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment, 1984 (art. 10); the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, 1979 (art. 10); the Convention on the Rights of the Child, 1989 (art. 29); the International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families, 1990 (art. 33); the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, 2006 (art. 4 and 8); the Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action (Part I, paras. 33-34 and Part II, paras. 78-82); the Declaration and Programme of Action of the World Conference against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance, 2001 (Declaration, paras. 95-97 and Programme of Action, paras. 129-139); the Outcome Document of the Durban Review Conference, 2009 (paras. 22 and 107); and the 2005 World Summit Outcome (para. 131).
3. In accordance with these instruments, which provide elements of a definition of human rights education as agreed upon by the international community, human rights education can be defined as any learning, education, training and information efforts aimed at building a universal culture of human rights, including:
(a) The strengthening of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms;
(b) The full development of the human personality and the sense of its dignity;
(c) The promotion of understanding, tolerance, gender equality and friendship among all nations, indigenous peoples and minorities;
(d) The enabling of all persons to participate effectively in a free and democratic society governed by the rule of law;
(e) The building and maintenance of peace;
(f) The promotion of people-centred sustainable development and social justice.
4. Human rights education encompasses:
(a) Knowledge and skills — learning about human rights and mechanisms, as well as acquiring skills to apply them in a practical way in daily life;
(b) Values, attitudes and behaviour — developing values and reinforcing attitudes and behaviour which uphold human rights;
(c) Action — taking action to defend and promote human rights.
5. With a view to encouraging human rights education initiatives, Member States have adopted various specific international frameworks for action, such as the World Public Information Campaign on Human Rights (1988-ongoing), focusing on the development and dissemination of human rights information materials, the United Nations Decade for Human Rights Education (1995-2004) and its plan of action, encouraging the elaboration and implementation of comprehensive, effective and sustainable strategies for human rights education at the national level, the International Decade for a Culture of Peace and Non-Violence for the Children of the World (2001-2010), the United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (2005-2014), the International Year for Human Rights Learning (2008-2009) as well as the International Year for the Rapprochement of Cultures (2010). 
6. The Platform for Human Rights Education and Training, an informal cross-regional grouping of States within the framework of the Human Rights Council which supports related international activities, is promoting the development of a United Nations declaration on human rights education and training. A first draft, prepared by the Human Rights Council Advisory Committee, was presented to the Council in March 2010. In its resolution 13/15 of 25 March 2010, the Council decided to establish an open-ended intergovernmental working group with the mandate of negotiating, finalizing and submitting to the Council the draft declaration by March 2011.
7. On 10 December 2004, upon the recommendation of the Commission on Human Rights and the Economic and Social Council, the General Assembly proclaimed the World Programme for Human Rights Education scheduled to begin on 1 January 2005, in order to advance the implementation of human rights education programmes in all sectors.  The World Programme is structured in consecutive phases, in order to further focus national human rights education efforts on specific sectors/issues.
B. Objectives of the World Programme for Human Rights Education
8. The objectives of the World Programme for Human Rights Education are:
(a) To promote the development of a culture of human rights;
(b) To promote a common understanding, based on international instruments, of basic principles and methodologies for human rights education;
(c) To ensure a focus on human rights education at the national, regional and international levels;
(d) To provide a common collective framework for action by all relevant actors;
(e) To enhance partnership and cooperation at all levels;
(f) To survey, evaluate and support existing human rights education programmes, to highlight successful practices, and to provide an incentive to continue and/or expand them and to develop new ones.
C. Principles for human rights education activities
9. Educational activities within the World Programme shall:
(a) Promote the interdependence, interrelatedness, indivisibility and universality of human rights, including civil, political, economic, social and cultural rights and the right to development;
(b) Foster respect for and appreciation of differences, and opposition to discrimination on the basis of race, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national, ethnic or social origin, physical or mental condition, sexual orientation and other bases;
(c) Encourage analysis of chronic and emerging human rights problems (including poverty, violent conflicts and discrimination), also in view of rapidly changing developments in the political, social, economic, technological and ecological fields, which would lead to responses and solutions consistent with human rights standards;
(d) Empower communities and individuals to identify their human rights needs and to claim them effectively;
(e) Develop the capacity of duty-bearers (in particular, governmental officials), who have an obligation to respect, protect and fulfil the human rights of those under their jurisdiction, to meet such obligation;
(f) Build on the human rights principles embedded within the different cultural contexts and take into account historical and social developments in each country;
(g) Foster knowledge of and skills to use local, national, regional and international human rights instruments and mechanisms for the protection of human rights;
(h) Make use of participatory pedagogies that include knowledge, critical analysis and skills for action furthering human rights;
(i) Foster teaching and learning environments free from want and fear that encourage participation, enjoyment of human rights and the full development of the human personality;
(j) Be relevant to the daily life of the learners, engaging them in a dialogue about ways and means of transforming human rights from the expression of abstract norms to the reality of their social, economic, cultural and political conditions.
II. The second phase (2010-2014) of the World Programme for Human Rights Education: a plan of action for human rights education in higher education and for human rights training for civil servants, law enforcement officials and the military
10. The first phase (2005-2009) of the World Programme was dedicated to the integration of human rights education in the primary and secondary school systems. A related plan of action was adopted by the General Assembly in July 2005. 
11. According to Human Rights Council resolution 12/4, the second phase of the World Programme (2010-2014) will focus “on human rights education for higher education and on human rights training programmes for teachers and educators, civil servants, law enforcement officials and military personnel at all levels” and “Member States should also continue the implementation of human rights education in primary and secondary school systems”.
12. The plan of action focuses on human rights education in two broadly-defined sectors, i.e. higher education and training for civil servants, law enforcement officials and the military.
13. With regard to training for teachers,  strategies to address primary and secondary school teachers are already covered in the plan of action for the first phase of the World Programme. Higher education teaching personnel,  sometimes also defined as teachers, are dealt with in the higher education section of this plan of action.
14. “Educators” is a broad definition used to refer to people who design, develop, implement and evaluate human rights education activities and programmes in formal, informal and non-formal education settings. Whilst the plan of action does not have a specific section on human rights training for such a wide range of educators, principles and strategies related to the higher-education teaching personnel would also be applicable by analogy.
B. Specific objectives
15. In view of the overall objectives of the World Programme for Human Rights Education (see section I.B above), the present plan of action aims to achieve the following specific objectives:
(a) To promote the inclusion of human rights education in higher education and in training programmes for civil servants, law enforcement officials and the military;
(b) To support the development, adoption and implementation of relevant sustainable national strategies;
(c) To provide guidelines on key components of human rights education in higher education and in training programmes for civil servants, law enforcement officials and the military;
(d) To facilitate the provision of support to higher education institutions and Member States by international, regional, national and local organizations;
(e) To support networking and cooperation among local, national, regional and international governmental and non-governmental institutions and organizations.
C. Action promoting human rights education in higher education
16. “Higher education” is defined as “all types of studies, training or training for research at the post-secondary level, provided by universities or other educational establishments that are approved as institutions of higher education by the competent State authorities”.  Included in the higher education sector can be institutions for the training and certification of teachers at all levels, social workers as well as medical and legal professionals.
17. Section C draws heavily from the plan of action for the first phase of the World Programme, as the integration of human rights education in the formal education system has common principles and strategies whether it concerns primary, secondary or higher education, and all these sectors fall within the scope of the right to education.
18. In relation to higher education, this plan of action draws on the principles and frameworks set by several international human rights and education instruments and documents, including the Universal Declaration of Human Rights; the Convention on the Rights of the Child and related guidelines adopted by the Committee on the Rights of the Child (in particular, general comment No. 1 (2001) on the aims of education); the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights and related guidelines adopted by the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (in particular, general comment No. 13 (1999) on the right to education); the Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action; the UNESCO Recommendation concerning Education for International Understanding, Co-operation and Peace and Education relating to Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms; the UNESCO Declaration and Integrated Framework of Action on Education for Peace, Human Rights and Democracy; the UNESCO Convention against Discrimination in Education; the UNESCO recommendation on the Recognition of Studies and Qualifications in Higher Education and the related regional conventions; the UNESCO recommendation concerning the Status of Higher-Education Teaching Personnel; the UNESCO World Declaration on Higher Education for the Twenty-First Century: Vision and Action, and the final document of the 2009 UNESCO World Conference on Higher Education “The New Dynamics of Higher Education and Research For Societal Change and Development”.
19. The Dakar Framework for Action on Education For All: Meeting Our Collective Commitments, adopted at the World Education Forum in 2000, the major international platform for and collective commitment to the achievement of the goals and targets of Education For All (EFA), reaffirmed a vision of education supported by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and geared towards learning to live together. In the Dakar Framework, education is considered key “to sustainable development and peace and stability” (para. 6), by fostering social cohesion and empowering people to become active participants in social transformation. Goal 6 of the Dakar Framework is to improve all aspects of the quality of education, ensuring their excellence so that recognized and measurable learning outcomes are achieved by all, especially in literacy, numeracy and essential life skills.  It provides the basis for a concept of quality education that goes beyond reading, writing and arithmetic, and which entails competences for democratic citizenship and attitudes promoting solidarity as important outcomes.
20. In the Plan of Implementation of the World Summit on Sustainable Development,  education is seen as a process providing learners with knowledge, skills and attitudes enabling them to address important questions such as rural development, health care, community involvement, HIV/AIDS, the environment, traditional and indigenous knowledge, as well as human rights. It is further stated that successful sustainable development requires an approach to education that strengthens “our engagement in support of other values — especially justice and fairness — and the awareness that we share a common destiny with others”.  Accordingly, the World Programme creates synergies with the United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (2005-2014), coupling efforts to address issues of common concern. 
21. While the enjoyment of academic freedom requires the autonomy of higher education institutions, higher education, as a public good, must be a matter of responsibility and economic support of all governments.  Higher education institutions, through their core functions (research, teaching and service to the community), not only have the social responsibility to educate ethical citizens committed to the construction of peace, the defence of human rights and the values of democracy, but also to generate global knowledge to meet current human rights challenges, such as eradication of poverty and discrimination, post-conflict rebuilding, sustainable development and multicultural understanding. 
22. Accordingly, the role of human rights education in higher education is fundamental. As education concerns “not only the content of the curriculum but also the educational processes, the pedagogical methods and the environment within which education takes place” , human rights education in higher education should be understood as a process that includes:
(a) “Human rights through education”: ensuring that all the components and processes of learning, including curricula, materials, methods and training are conducive to the learning of human rights;
(b) “Human rights in education”: ensuring respect for the human rights of all actors, and the practice of rights, within the higher education system.
23. Although many factors may contribute, the integration of this approach in higher education would include action in at least the following five areas.
(a) Policies and related implementation measures 
24. The development, adoption and implementation of human rights education policies, as well as the infusion of human rights in educational policies, needs to be consistent with institutional autonomy and academic freedom, and sharing of rights and responsibilities in accordance with each State’s educational system.
25. Policy development should be participatory, involving associations of teaching personnel and other stakeholders.
26. Key features for human rights education policymaking in the higher education system may include:
(a) Developing policies and legislation for ensuring the inclusion of human rights, and in particular human rights education, in the higher education system:
(i) Including human rights education in education laws or adopting specific legislation on human rights education;
(ii) Ensuring that all legislation is aligned with the principles of human rights education and monitoring inconsistency in legislation;
(iii) Ensuring that policies are based on relevant research in human rights education;
(iv) Developing policies and regulations with regard to university governance and management, including all those affecting the university culture and student life, which are consistent with human rights principles;
(v) Establishing policies and practices for the recruitment, appraisal, compensation, discipline and promotion of teaching personnel which respect the human rights principles of equality, non-discrimination, respect, dignity, fairness and transparency;
(vi) Adopting policies prohibiting sexual discrimination and harassment including on the basis of pregnancy or maternity. Reviewing recruitment, hiring, training and promotion policies to remove gender bias;
(vii) Developing policies to ensure that higher education is made equally accessible to all, on the basis of capacity,  ensuring access for vulnerable groups including persons with disabilities  and avoiding discrimination; 
(viii) Making human rights training a criterion for state licensing or certification for relevant professions.
(b) Ensuring coherence, links and synergies with related policies:
(i) Integrating human rights education in national sectoral plans for higher education; in national plans for Education for All (EFA); in national policy frameworks as part of the Decade on Education for Sustainable Development (2005-2014); and in inclusive education policies;
(ii) Including human rights education in national human rights plans; in national action plans against racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance; in national poverty reduction strategies; and in other development frameworks.
(c) Adopting a comprehensive human rights training policy for teaching personnel including:
(i) The training of trainers, pre-service and in-service training of teaching personnel;
(ii) Information on the rights, responsibilities and participation of students and teaching personnel in all pre- and in-service teacher-training policies and programmes;
(iii) Recognizing, accrediting and supporting non-governmental organizations and other sectors of civil society carrying out training activities in human rights education;
(iv) Considering human rights education as a criterion for the qualification, accreditation and career development of educational staff and the accreditation of training activities of non-governmental organizations;
(v) Developing criteria and standards to evaluate human rights training programmes and their implementation.
(d) Fulfilling international obligations on human rights education:
(i) Promoting the ratification of international instruments concerning the right to education and human rights education;
(ii) Including information on human rights education in the national reports to the relevant international monitoring mechanisms, including United Nations treaty bodies (especially the Committee on the Rights of the Child and the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights), United Nations special procedures (especially the Special Rapporteur on the right to education) and the universal periodic review;
(iii) Cooperating with non-governmental organizations, other sectors of civil society and human rights education specialists in preparing the above-mentioned national reports;
(iv) Publicizing and implement the recommendations made by the international monitoring mechanisms;
(v) Developing and adopting relevant policy implementation measures. Effective educational policy development and reform requires not only explicit policy statements but also a consistent implementation strategy, including clearly defined measures, mechanisms, responsibilities and resources. Such an implementation strategy involving all stakeholders can ensure coherence, monitoring and accountability of policies.
(b) Teaching and learning processes and tools
27. Introducing or improving human rights education in the higher education system requires adopting a holistic approach to teaching and learning, by integrating programme objectives and content, resources, methodologies, assessment and evaluation; by looking beyond the classroom and the higher-education institution to society; and by building partnerships between different members of the academic community and beyond.
28. The following aspects are necessary for achieving quality human rights teaching and learning. They are addressed to policymakers at national and higher education institution levels as well as, in some instances, to teaching personnel:
(a) Concerning teaching and learning programmes and courses:
(i) Develop strategies for infusing human rights as a cross-cutting issue into all higher-education disciplines - not only law, social studies or history but also disciplines in the technical and scientific fields (for instance architecture and engineering as they relate to development, environment, housing; medicine as it relates to child care, public health, women’s reproductive rights, HIV/AIDS, disability; biotechnology and architecture as they relate to food, housing and environment, etc.);
(ii) Consider offering introductory courses on human rights for students of all disciplines;
(iii) Consider introducing advanced courses addressing human rights issues specifically relevant for each course of study;
(iv) Develop specialized Master and PhD programmes in human rights in a variety of disciplines and subject areas;
(v) Develop multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary human rights academic programmes. 
(b) Concerning teaching and learning materials:
(i) Review and revise textbooks and manuals to conform to human rights principles and support the development of balanced and relevant human rights education and training materials that encourage active participation in teaching and learning processes;
(ii) Make sure that human rights education materials stem from human rights principles as embedded in the relevant cultural contexts, as well as historical and social developments;
(iii) Encourage the collection, sharing, translation and adaptation of human rights education materials;
(iv) Utilize human rights/human rights education materials issued by United Nations entities in the country or region as teaching and learning materials, as well as research documents.
(c) Concerning teaching and learning practices and methodologies:
(i) Adopt a teaching style that is coherent with human rights, i.e. which respects human rights, the dignity and self-esteem of each learner, taking also into account cultural considerations;
(ii) Adopt learner-centred methods and approaches that empower students, encourage their interactive participation, and activities that encourage the exploration of alternative perspectives and critical reflection;
(iii) Employ experiential learning methodologies that enable learners to understand and apply human rights concepts to their lives and experiences, including community research and/or service;
(iv) In planning human rights teaching, define the human rights skills and competencies to be acquired and give equal importance to cognitive (knowledge and skills) and social/affective (values, attitudes, behaviours) learning outcomes;
(v) Establish a quality-assurance system for higher education which is consistent with human rights principles and create specific quality assurance mechanisms for human rights education.
(d) Concerning teaching and learning support and resources:
(i) Establish and develop, within higher education institutions, human rights training and resource centres to promote the establishment or enhancement of sustainable human rights training programmes and courses and ensure their quality, as well as to provide facilities for human rights studies and research;
(ii) Facilitate access to new information technologies for networking, exchange of human rights information and discussion. Develop website resources, develop and facilitate e-learning, online learning programmes, e-forums, web conferencing and distance learning programmes;
(iii) Encourage scholarships as a means to promote human rights education and training.
29. The role of higher education in developing new knowledge and advancing critical reflection in the area of human rights is fundamental. Higher education should inform, by means of research, human rights education policies and practice, through inter alia the following strategies:
(a) Encouraging and investing in research contributing to the development of innovative and effective methodologies and tools for human rights education based also on the analysis and assessment of existing practices, lesson-learning and evaluation exercises, and widely disseminate research results;
(b) Encouraging and investing in research on ways of translating human rights principles and specific human rights instruments into concrete forms (e.g. government policy and programmes, business practices, community initiatives, socio-cultural norms) as a general research agenda;
(c) Assessing, collecting and disseminating examples of good practices in human rights education at the higher education and other levels;
(d) Establishing links, partnerships and networks to facilitate collaboration and information exchanges between researchers of different higher education institutions, non-governmental and other civil society organizations, national human rights institutions and international organizations, and the collaborative development of human rights education research projects;
(e) Establishing and developing human rights resource centres and libraries which play a capacity-building role, providing facilities for human rights studies and research and ascertain how these can be better supported;
(f) Encouraging scholarships and fellowships as a means to promote human-rights related research;
(g) Participating in international surveys and comparative studies.
(d) The learning environment
30. In the context of higher education, it is important to stress that members of the academic community, individually or collectively, are free to pursue, develop and transmit knowledge and ideas, through research, teaching, study, discussion, documentation, production, creation or writing. Academic freedom includes the liberty of individuals to freely express opinions about the institution or system in which they work, to fulfil their functions without discrimination or fear of repression by the State or any other actor, to participate in professional or representative academic bodies, and to enjoy all the internationally recognized human rights applicable to other individuals in the same jurisdiction. 
31. Introducing human rights education in higher education institutions implies that they strive to be places where human rights are lived and practised. To this end, it is essential to ensure that educational objectives, practices and the organization of higher education institutions are consistent with human rights principles, through, inter alia, the following strategies:
(a) Developing explicit and shared policy statements, such as charters on the rights and responsibilities of students and teaching personnel; codes of conduct for higher education institutions free of violence, sexual abuse, harassment and corporal punishment, including procedures for resolving conflicts and dealing with violence; non-discrimination policies including admissions, scholarships, advancement, promotion, special programmes, eligibility and opportunities;
(b) For teaching personnel, ensuring that they not only have an explicit mandate from the leadership concerning human rights education, but also opportunities for developing and implementing innovative good practices in human rights education;
(c) Adopting policies that protect and respect the human rights of all who teach in institutions of higher learning as well as support staff of these institutions (e.g. librarians, archivists, research assistants, administrators);
(d) Ensuring that students enjoy freedom of expression and participation in decision-making, organizing their own activities and representing, mediating and advocating their interests;
(e) Strengthening the more general role of higher education institutions in public awareness-raising about human rights, also through the organization of special events such as festivals, conferences, exhibitions as a collaborative effort with youth groups, civil society and local government etc.;
(f) Facilitating the implementation of extra-curricular student projects and service in the community on human rights issues, such as for example the establishment of clinics providing free legal advice or the performance of internships with human rights non-governmental organizations or other civil society actors.
(e) Education and professional development of higher education teaching personnel
32. Teaching personnel have a major responsibility to transmit human rights values, skills, attitudes, motivation and practices, both in the performance of their professional responsibilities and in their function as role-models. To this end, the recognition of and respect for their professional status, as well as the provision of adequate human rights training, are essential.
33. Strategies to address human rights education in the education and professional development of higher education teaching personnel include:
(a) Developing pre-service and in-service training curricula on human rights education, including the following elements:
(i) Knowledge and understanding of human rights, their universality, indivisibility and interdependence and of protection mechanisms;
(ii) Multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary human rights perspectives;
(iii) Educational theories underlying human rights education, including links between formal, non-formal and informal education;
(iv) Teaching and learning methodologies for human rights education and the role of teaching personnel;
(v) Social skills and leadership styles of teaching personnel that are democratic and coherent with human rights principles;
(vi) Rights and responsibilities of teaching personnel and students, including in addressing human rights issues in the institution;
(vii) Information on existing educational materials for human rights education, building the capacity of higher-education teaching personnel to review and choose from among them as well as to develop new materials.
(b) Developing and using appropriate training methodologies:
(i) Appropriate training methods for the adult learner, in particular learner-centred approaches, and addressing motivation, self-esteem and emotional development leading to awareness-raising on values and behaviour;
(ii) Appropriate methods for training in human rights education such as using participatory, interactive, cooperative and experience and practice-based methods, taking also into account cultural considerations; linking theory to practice; testing learned techniques in the work situation, particularly the classroom.
(c) Developing and disseminating appropriate training resources and materials:
(i) Collection, dissemination and exchange of good practices in training in human rights education;
(ii) Stocktaking and dissemination of training methodologies developed by non-governmental organizations and other sectors of civil society;
(iii) Development of materials as part of in-service training activities;
(iv) Development of online materials and resources.
(d) Networking and cooperation among different education and training providers;
(e) Promotion and participation in international education and training activities and exchanges;
(f) Evaluation of training activities including self-evaluation and perceptions of trainees on the relevance, utility and impact of training activities.
34. Main responsibility for the implementation of this section of the plan of action rests with ministries of education or higher education, working in cooperation with other relevant departments of the government (for instance, finance ministries) as well as higher education institutions and relevant training colleges, with varying levels of responsibility, depending upon the degree of institutional autonomy.
35. The above-mentioned actors will need to work closely with numerous national institutions and organizations including:
(a) Unions of higher education teaching personnel;
(b) Student unions and associations;
(c) Legislative bodies, including education, development and human rights/education parliamentary committees and advisory groups;
(d) National human rights institutions, such as ombudsmen and human rights commissions;
(e) Relevant institutions of higher education which participate in the UNITWIN Networks and UNESCO Chairs programme; 
(f) National college and university networks;
(g) National Commissions for UNESCO;
(h) Education research institutes;
(i) National and local human rights training and resource centres or institutes, including those within higher education institutions;
(j) Training colleges, where they exist, for higher education teaching personnel;
(k) Non-governmental organizations.
36. Other stakeholders to be involved would include:
(a) The media;
(b) Religious institutions;
(c) Community leaders and local community institutions;
(d) Indigenous peoples and minorities;
(e) The corporate sector.
D. Action promoting human rights training for civil servants, law enforcement officials and the military
37. Section D of the present plan of action focuses on human rights training for a broad range of adult professionals who have specific responsibility, as state actors, to respect, protect and fulfil the human rights of those under their jurisdiction. They include:
(a) Civil servants  who, depending on national laws and governmental structures, may include officials and policymakers from government ministries and departments, diplomats, employees of local government and municipalities, as well as fiscal and economic agencies, teachers, public health professionals and social workers;
(b) Law enforcement officials,  i.e. police, prison personnel and border patrols, as well as security forces and the military, when they are given police powers;
(c) The military.
38. The above-mentioned professional groups have very different roles and responsibilities, institutional and organizational cultures and specific international human rights standards applicable to them. Given its broad scope, this section will only present some general strategies for addressing these professions, while occasionally providing specific examples.
39. With regard to civil servants, law enforcement officials and the military, the plan of action draws on the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, as well as major international human rights treaties, including the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights; the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights; the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination; the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment; the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women; the Convention on the Rights of the Child; the International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families, and the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities.
40. In addition, the United Nations has developed a series of other international instruments, such as recommendations, basic principles, codes of conduct etc., which provide more detailed guidance to certain professional groups for the performance of their duties in line with human rights standards.
41. For instance, in the case of law enforcement officials, those instruments include:
- The Code of Conduct for Law Enforcement Officials
- The Basic Principles on the Use of Force and Firearms by Law Enforcement Officials
- The Declaration of Basic Principles of Justice for Victims of Crime and Abuse of Power
- The Declaration on the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance
- The Principles on the Effective Prevention and Investigation of Extra-legal, Arbitrary and Summary Executions
- The Principles on the Effective Investigation and Documentation of Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment
- The United Nations Standard Minimum Rules for Non-custodial Measures (the Tokyo Rules)
- Instruments concerning the treatment of detainees and prisoners (Standard Minimum Rules for the Treatment of Prisoners; Basic Principles for the Treatment of Prisoners; Body of Principles for the Protection of All Persons under Any Form of Detention or Imprisonment)
- Instruments concerning juvenile justice (United Nations Guidelines for the Prevention of Juvenile Delinquency (the Riyadh Guidelines); United Nations Standard Minimum Rules for the Administration of Juvenile Justice (the Beijing Rules); United Nations Rules for the Protection of Juveniles Deprived of Their Liberty; Guidelines for Action on Children in the Criminal Justice System).
42. Similarly, specific international human rights standards would be applicable to the civil service or the military.
(a) Training policies and other related policies
43. If training is to produce the desired impact on behaviour and professional performance, it must be clearly supported by and linked to corresponding policies and rules in the trainees’ organization or institution. With regard to civil servants, law enforcement officials and the military, the following strategies could be adopted:
(a) Reviewing pre-service and in-service training policies to make sure that they include human rights training,  and make audience-specific human rights courses compulsory for pre-service training;
(b) Encouraging the adoption of a comprehensive human rights training policy relating to pre-service and in-service training, with such training as a mandatory criterion for professional qualification and promotion;
(c) Adopting policies to recruit and especially train officials appropriately suited for dealing with vulnerable groups which may be dealt with by the professions, such as children, women, minorities, people with disabilities, indigenous peoples etc.
(d) With regard to the institutionalization of human rights training:
(i) Commitment to human rights training for civil servants, law enforcement officials and the military should not translate into just one-off training courses for selected officials but should encourage the establishment of a sound national training structure, involving both the sector in question and those sectors of society it is supposed to serve;
(ii) Reviewing all existing pre-service and in-service training curricula to explicitly integrate human rights principles and standards in all relevant subjects, and in addition develop specific human rights training courses as appropriate;
(iii) Encouraging the creation of a fully integrated human rights centre in civil service training colleges, schools of government, and police and military training colleges;
(iv) When possible, giving priority to the training of trainers, i.e. those who are charged with conducting human rights training and material or knowledge dissemination efforts after returning to their institutions, organizations or duty stations. In proceeding this way, the impact of a training programme is multiplied. In the case of training of trainers, training programmes should also include sessions on training methodology (see above) and design (both lessons and materials);
(v) Considering the introduction of incentives for the different professional groups to encourage their participation in human rights training programmes;
(vi) Setting up a mechanism for evaluation and impact assessment with regard to institutionalized human rights training, in accordance with each State’s system.
(e) As training should not be an isolated effort but rather part of a human rights capacity-building strategy, it is important that policies and regulations with regard to the profession be also reviewed to make sure that they are not inconsistent with human rights standards and that they specifically promote the contribution of the profession to human rights. Those policies could include the establishment of a vetting system to exclude from the civil service, law enforcement and the military candidates who do not commit to human rights principles; policies for the recruitment, appraisal, compensation and discipline of civil servants, law enforcement officials and the military which are in line with human rights principles of equality, non-discrimination, respect, dignity, fairness and transparency; policies prohibiting sexual discrimination and harassment; and regulations for specific professional tasks which may particularly affect human rights (such as, in respect of law enforcement, standing orders which may cover the use of force and firearms or the prompt and effective response to cases of violence against women).
(b) Training processes and tools
44. Strategies to ensure the effectiveness of human rights training for adult audiences, such as civil servants, law enforcement officials and the military, include:
(a) With regard to training methodology and practices, developing human rights training, based on certain methodological principles,  as shown by adult learning studies and experience, including:
(i) Audience specificity
Training must be directly targeted and appropriately addressed to the particular audience, be they police, health-care workers, diplomats, military, development professionals etc. A consultative training needs assessment, involving the target institution or group to be trained, should be organized in order to undertake an analysis of the professional duties, experiences, expectations, personal backgrounds and aspirations of training participants, as well as their level of human rights knowledge and skills; to set up specific learning objectives (desired post-training changes in participant knowledge, attitude, behaviour and skills); to design an evaluation strategy, and in particular how the achievement of the learning objectives will be measured; and to assess other activities that should be implemented;
(ii) Relevant and practical content
It follows from the previous principle that the training content should focus on human rights standards and practices that are directly relevant to the daily lives of trainees. Professional groups need to know not just what human rights are, but also how to apply them in real life situations. Training content should, therefore, be designed around the functions of the professional group and how to apply human rights in the performance of them, also focusing on human rights issues which would more likely be encountered by the specific profession; 
(iii) Participatory and sensitizing training techniques
Training programmes should feature a variety of creative and participatory adult training techniques to secure active involvement by the learners, including brainstorming, role playing, group work, case studies, panel discussions and field trips, possibly with the use of audiovisuals. Well-designed exercises could sensitize trainees to their own potential for both contributing to behaviour that violates human rights (e.g. strengthening trainee awareness of gender  or racial bias in their own attitudes or behaviour) and promoting and defending human rights;
(iv) Peer learning
Much more can be accomplished through a peer-learning approach that features, for example, the police and the military being trained by their peers as opposed to a professor-student training model. This approach ensures trainers’ access to the distinctive professional culture that surrounds each audience. Simultaneously, practitioner trainers should be accompanied and supported by human rights experts, thus ensuring that human rights standards are fully and consistently reflected through the training process. Similarly, international training activities and exchanges could be promoted among individuals belonging to the same professional group;
(v) The role of self-esteem
Adult trainees will bring to the training their own professional expertise and practical experience that should be both acknowledged and drawn on for the benefit of training. Trainers should thus seek to establish an atmosphere in which the exchange of expertise and experience is facilitated, the professional knowledge of trainees is recognized and professional pride which reflects human rights principles is encouraged.
(b) With regard to training content, developing distinct content for civil servants, law enforcement officials and the military, reflecting their different roles and responsibilities and institutional/organizational cultures, e.g:
(i) With regard to civil servants, who may include a broad variety of professionals (see para. 37 (a) above), human rights training content within this category would differ substantially. For instance, human rights training for social workers  would be oriented to the protection of vulnerable groups such as children, women, elderly persons, disabled persons, prisoners, refugees, and migrants, as social workers need to guarantee protection when State action for the public good threatens the human rights of those particular persons or groups. Human rights training for local government officials may focus on human rights standards in the context of good governance,  i.e. the exercise of authority through political and institutional processes that are transparent and accountable and encourage public participation. Human rights training for diplomats may focus, inter alia, on international human rights instruments and mechanisms, as diplomats may be called upon to ensure their countries’ input into the international human rights machinery;
(ii) In the case of the police,  human rights training would cover human rights standards touching upon various police functions, such as methods of police investigation; search and seizure; arrest and pretrial detention; use of force and firearms; policing in civil disorder, states of emergency and internal conflicts; legal crowd control measures, etc. It would also focus on groups requiring special protection such as juveniles, women, migrants, refugees and persons with disabilities. Depending on the audience, it could include the infusion of a human rights perspective into matters of police command, management and control, including the issuing of standing orders, development of codes of conduct, entry and in-service training, fair and non-discriminatory recruitment processes, screening processes for new recruits, community policing strategies, the establishment of complaints mechanisms, and the obligation to launch prompt and impartial investigations in the case of human rights violations;
(iii) Human rights training for prison officials  would familiarize trainees with international human rights standards in the operation of penitentiaries, facilitate examination of humane and effective techniques for the performance of prison officials and of legal and judicial functions in a democratic society, and prepare trainees to include this information in their daily work. It could include human rights standards regarding facilities for prisoners and detainees; prisoners’ physical and mental health, including HIV/AIDS; treatment of special categories of prisoners and detainees, including juveniles, women, persons with disabilities, remand prisoners; prison records; prison administration, discipline and complaints procedures; use of force; punishment and recourse procedures; due process and complaints; contacts with the outside world, including family, legal counsel and medical personnel; freedom of belief and worship; prison labour (e.g. work conditions, remuneration); and education and recreation;
(iv) The military would need to be trained in international human rights norms and standards as relevant to their conflict-related tasks, as well as to those duties of modern professional soldiers that go beyond the waging of war. These increasingly include civil policing duties, the maintenance of order and public safety under states of emergency, and assignment to international peacekeeping operations. The effective, professional and humane performance of these duties requires knowledge of and sensitization to human rights standards, as well as the skills to apply them in the daily work of the military. Traditional military training has, however, in many cases included only reference to the international law of armed conflicts (or humanitarian law), including the 1949 Geneva Conventions and their additional protocols. Human rights training per se, however, have been conspicuously absent.
(c) With regard to training tools, developing training materials that reflect the above-mentioned methodology. Existing textbooks and manuals should be reviewed and revised to ensure that they conform to human rights principles and are audience specific.
(c) The learning and working environment
45. Human rights training can only take place in an environment where human rights are practised. To this end, the following strategies could be implemented:
(a) Developing and adopting clear and shared policy statements such as codes of conduct and professional ethics for staff and officials, codes of practice for employers explicitly incorporating human rights standards in all areas of work, and charters on rights and responsibilities for employees;
(b) Encouraging the recognition and celebration of human rights achievements through human rights events, competitions, awards, scholarships and prizes;
(c) Encouraging interaction between law enforcement officials, local government and military and the wider community, including the formal adoption of plans of action (for instance, to combat racism, discrimination, gender violence, etc.).
46. Main responsibility for the implementation of this section of the plan of action rests with the ministries responsible for the civil service, law enforcement officials and the military (for instance, depending on arrangements in specific countries, these may be the ministry of public administration, ministry of interior, ministry of justice or ministry of defence), working in cooperation with other relevant departments of the government (for instance, finance ministries) as well as local government.
47. The above-mentioned actors will need to work closely with numerous national institutions and organizations including:
(a) Civil service training colleges, schools of government, and police and military training colleges, where they exist;
(b) Unions of civil servants and law enforcement officials;
(c) Relevant legislative bodies, including for instance interior, defence and human rights parliamentary committees and advisory groups;
(d) Municipalities, in particular those belonging to national and regional networks and associations, such as the UNESCO Coalition of Cities against Racism and Discrimination;
(e) National human rights institutions, such as ombudsmen and human rights commissions;
(f) National and local human rights training and resource centres;
(g) Non-governmental organizations.
48. Other stakeholders to be involved would include:
(a) The media;
(b) Religious institutions;
(c) Community leaders and local community institutions;
(d) Indigenous peoples and minorities;
(e) The corporate sector.
E. Process for national implementation
1. Steps for implementation
49. In the implementation of the present plan of action, Member States should establish realistic goals and means for action in accordance with the country’s context, priorities and capacity, and based on previous national efforts.
50. Four steps are outlined below to facilitate the process of national planning, implementation and evaluation of human rights education in higher education and human rights training for civil servants, law enforcement officials and the military. Such processes should be carried out with the involvement of all possible relevant national actors (see sections C.3 and D.3 above).
Step 1: Analysis of the current situation of human rights education in higher education and of human rights training for civil servants, law enforcement officials and the military.
Keeping in mind the strategies mentioned in sections C and D above:
- Collect information on and analyse the following, aimed at preparing a national baseline study for each of the areas concerned (higher education; civil servants, possibly by category; law enforcement officials and the military): 
- Current situation of human rights education in higher education and human rights training for civil servants, law enforcement officials and the military, including initiatives already undertaken and their shortcomings and obstacles.
- Existing policies and legislation.
- Good practices and resources and tools existing at local, national and regional levels.
- Historical and cultural context that may influence human rights education and training in those areas.
- Actors currently involved (governmental institutions, national human rights institutions, research institutes, non-governmental organizations and other civil society actors).
- Complementary efforts (such as university programmes with regard to peace education, global education, intercultural education, education for international understanding, democratic citizenship and values education; ethics programmes for professionals, etc.).
- Determine which human rights education initiatives exist already and identify effective practices and programmes.
- Identify key features and areas by analysing and determining advantages and disadvantages, as well as opportunities for and limitations in the above areas.
- Arrive at conclusions on the level of implementation.
- Consider how to build on advantages and lessons learned, and how to use opportunities, considering also measures that are necessary to deal with disadvantages and limitations.
- Preparation of the national baseline studies and wide dissemination of the results nationally to facilitate work on a national implementation strategy
Step 2: Setting priorities and developing a national implementation strategy, identifying objectives and priorities and foreseeing implementation activities (at least for the period 2010-2014).
- Define the basic goals for implementation in each of the target areas.
- Fix objectives using this plan of action as a reference.
- Set priorities on the basis of the findings of the national baseline studies, taking into account the most pressing needs and/or available opportunities.
- Focus on interventions leading to impact, giving priority to measures that will secure sustainable change vis-à-vis ad-hoc activities.
- Encourage the building of alliances and synergies among different actors.
- Identify the following:
- Inputs - allocation of available resources (human, financial, time)
- Activities (tasks, responsibilities, time frame and milestones)
- Mechanisms for coordination of the national implementation strategy
- Outputs - concrete products, such as legislation, codes of conduct, educational materials (new or revised manuals), training programmes, non-discriminatory policies, etc.
- Outcomes - results to be achieved
- A national implementation strategy.
Step 3: Implementing and monitoring
- Disseminate the national implementation strategy among concerned services and stakeholders and implement the planned activities in cooperation with them.
- Monitor implementation with regard to the identified milestones.
- Progress report(s) with regard to the national implementation strategy.
Step 4: Evaluation
- Adopt self-evaluation and independent evaluation methods to review implementation, and as a means to improve and strengthen activities.
- Acknowledge, disseminate, and note the achievement of results.
- National report(s) on the outcomes of the national implementation strategy.
- Recommendations for future actions based on lessons learned.
51. The main responsibility for implementation rests with the government, which should identify a relevant department as a focal point responsible for coordinating the elaboration, implementation and monitoring of the national implementation strategy. The coordinating department would engage with relevant units, ministries and other concerned national actors. It would also cooperate with national agencies responsible for the elaboration of country reports to the United Nations human rights mechanisms (treaty bodies,  special rapporteurs and the universal periodic review), in order to ensure that progress in human rights education and training under this plan of action is included in those reports.
52. The coordinating department would liaise with OHCHR by sharing information on progress and by ensuring preparation and submission of the government’s final national evaluation report at the conclusion of the second phase.
F. International cooperation and support
53. International cooperation and assistance is to be directed at strengthening national capacities for human rights education and training in support of the national implementation strategy. It may be provided by:
(a) The United Nations system,  including its specialized agencies and the United Nations University;
(b) Professional training institutions affiliated to the United Nations, such as those involved in social welfare; medical and health services; drugs and trafficking prevention; refugees, migration and border security; and criminal procedure;
(c) The United Nations-mandated University of Peace (UPEACE);
(d) Other international intergovernmental organizations;
(e) Regional intergovernmental organizations;
(f) Relevant international and regional professional networks;
(g) International and regional networks of higher education institutions;
(h) International and regional non-governmental organizations;
(i) International and regional human rights resource and documentation centres;
(j) International and regional financial institutions (World Bank, regional development banks, etc.), as well as bilateral funding agencies;
(k) Multilateral and bilateral development agencies.
54. It is essential that these actors collaborate closely in order to maximize resources, avoid duplication and ensure coherence for the implementation of this plan of action.
55. The above-mentioned organizations and institutions may:
(a) Support governments in the elaboration, implementation and monitoring of the national implementation strategy;
(b) Provide support to other national actors involved, in particular national and local non-governmental organizations, professional associations, higher education institutions, national human rights institutions, and other civil society organizations;
(c) Facilitate information-sharing at all levels by identifying, collecting and disseminating information on good practices, for example through the awarding of prizes, as well as on available materials, institutions and programmes;
(d) Support existing networks among human rights education and training actors and promote the creation of new ones at all levels.
G. Coordination and evaluation
56. OHCHR will ensure international coordination of the second phase of the World Programme, in cooperation with relevant entities of the United Nations system, in particular UNESCO with regard to higher education, and other actors; it will also promote related awareness-raising initiatives.
57. At the conclusion of the second phase, in early 2015, each country will undertake an evaluation of actions implemented under this plan of action, taking as reference in particular sections C, D and E. Member States will be called upon to provide their final national evaluation report to OHCHR. OHCHR will prepare a global report based on those national evaluation reports, and will submit it to the Human Rights Council in 2015.
 Commission on Human Rights resolution 2004/71 (21 April 2004), preambular paragraph 4.
 General Assembly resolution 62/90.
 General Assembly resolution 59/113 A.
 General Assembly document A/59/525/Rev.1, Revised draft plan of action for the first phase of the World Programme for Human Rights Education, available at: http://www2.ohchr.org/english/issues/education/training/planaction.htm .
 “The word ‘teachers’ covers all those persons in schools who are responsible for the education of pupils”, UNESCO recommendation concerning the Status of Teachers (1966), section I, definitions, para. 1 (a).
 “"Higher-education teaching personnel’ means all those persons in institutions or programmes of higher education who are engaged to teach and/or to undertake scholarship and/or to undertake research and/or to provide educational services to students or to the community at large”, UNESCO recommendation concerning the Status of Higher-Education Teaching Personnel, 1997, section I, definitions, para. 1 (f).
 UNESCO recommendation on the Recognition of Studies and Qualifications in Higher Education (1993), section I, para. 1 (a).
 Available at http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0012/001211/121147e.pdf.
 According to general comment No. 1 (2001) of the Committee on the Rights of the Child on the aims of education, life skills include “the ability to make well-balanced decisions; to resolve conflicts in a non-violent manner; and to develop a healthy lifestyle, good social relationships and responsibility, critical thinking, creative talents, and other abilities which give children the tools needed to pursue their options in life” (para.9).
 Report of the World Summit on Sustainable Development (A/CONF.199/20).
 UNESCO, “Education for Sustainability. From Rio to Johannesburg: Lessons learned from a decade of commitment” (2002).
 UNESCO Strategy for the Second Half of the United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (2010/ED/UNP/DESD/PI/1, p. 9).
 See Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, general comment No. 13 (1999), para. 40, available at http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/cescr/comments.htm. See also the final document of the 2009 UNESCO World Conference on Higher Education “The New Dynamics of Higher Education and Research For Societal Change and Development”, p. 2: “Higher education as a public good is the responsibility of all stakeholders, especially governments.”
 See final document of the 2009 UNESCO World Conference on Higher Education, preamble and paras. 2-4.
 Committee on the Rights of the Child, general comment No. 1 (2001) on the aims of education, para 8.
 Policies may be defined as clear and coherent statements of commitments. Prepared at different levels of government, in cooperation with all stakeholders, they include principles, definitions and objectives and serve as a normative reference throughout the higher education system and for all actors.
 Art. 13 of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights; art. 28 of the Convention on the Rights of the Child.
 Art. 9 of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities.
 For instance, different standards of treatment being applied to non-citizens on grounds of race, colour, descent, and national or ethnic origin – see Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination, general recommendation no. 30 (2004) on discrimination against non-citizens, para. 31.
 Multidisciplinary programmes would include the study, research and engagement with human rights from different disciplinary perspectives, such as philosophy, sociology, languages, international and domestic law, etc. Interdisciplinary programmes would entail the crossing of boundaries between disciplines and the pooling of approaches and methodologies to study, research and engage with human rights with a new integrated perspective.
 Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, general comment No. 13 (1999), para. 39.
 UNITWIN/UNESCO Chairs projects deal with training and research activities and cover all major fields of knowledge within UNESCO competence such as education, human rights, cultural development, environment, etc. The principal beneficiaries of this programme are institutions of higher learning in developing countries and countries in transition.
 There is no internationally-agreed definition of what constitutes “civil service” (see World Bank article “Civil Service Law & Employment Regimes”, 26 April 2001, available at http://www1.worldbank.org/publicsector/civilservice/civilservicelaw.htm). The concept and definition of “civil service” and “civil servant” differs widely from country to country, in accordance with national laws and governmental structures. See for instance the International Labour Organization (ILO) Thesaurus, 6th edition, 2008 (available at http://www.ilo.org/public/libdoc/ILO-Thesaurus/english/index.htm): “civil service” is referred to as “the permanent, professional branches of state administration, excluding military and judicial branches and elected politicians” and “civil servant” as “public administration employee”. In current usage, the term most commonly refers to officials within civilian central government or subnational government (see the World Bank as cited above). Research shows that they may include officials from government ministries, departments, executive agencies, diplomatic service, local government and city councils or municipalities, fiscal and economic agencies, revenue collection agencies; in some cases, also teachers employed in public education systems and employees of public hospitals (non-exhaustive list).
 For a definition of law enforcement officials, see art. 1 (a) and (b) of the Code of Conduct for Law Enforcement Officials, available at http://www2.ohchr.org/english/law/codeofconduct.htm.
 See, for instance para. 3 of general recommendation No. 13 (1993) on the training of law enforcement officials in the protection of human rights of the Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination.
 See Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR), Human Rights Training – A Manual on Human Rights Training Methodology (United Nations Publications, no Sales No.).
 For instance, States are encouraged to formulate and implement training programmes for law enforcement, immigration and border officials, prosecutors and service providers, with a view to sensitizing them to racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance (see outcome document of the Durban Review Conference, para. 75). Officials who work on migration issues or are in contact with migrant workers and members of their families will need to get acquainted with the content of the International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families.
 It is important to note that in para. 24 (b) of its general recommendation No. 19 (1992) on violence against women, the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women stated that gender-sensitive training of law enforcement officers and other public officials is essential for the effective implementation of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women.
 See OHCHR, Human Rights and Social Work: a Manual for Schools of Social Work and the Social Work Profession (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.94.XIV.4).
 See OHCHR, Good Governance Practices for the Protection of Human Rights (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.07.XIV.10).
 See OHCHR human rights training package for law enforcement, consisting of the following: Human Rights and Law Enforcement: a Manual on Human Rights Training for the Police (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.96.XIV.5); Human Rights and Law Enforcement: a Trainer’s Guide on Human Rights for the Police (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.03.XIV.1); and Human Rights Standards and Practice for the Police: expanded Pocket Book on Human Rights for the Police (United Nations Publication, Sales No. E.03.XIV.7).
 See OHCHR training package for prison officials, consisting of the following: Human Rights and Prisons: Manual on Human Rights Training for Prison Officials (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.04.XIV.1); Human Rights and Prisons: a Compilation of International Human Rights Instruments concerning the Administration of Justice (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.04.XIV.4); Human Rights and Prisons: Trainer's Guide on Human Rights Training for Prison Officials (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.04.XIV.6); and Human Rights and Prisons - a Pocketbook of International Human Rights Standards for Prison Officials (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.04.XIV.5).
 Given the number of the target areas and the diversity of actors involved in each of them, the baseline study could either be conducted by the governmental coordinating department, or separate studies could be undertaken in each target area by the most relevant actor/s.
 See the “Harmonized guidelines on reporting under the international human rights treaties, including guidelines on a common core document and treaty-specific targeted documents” (HRI/GEN/2/Rev.6), para. 43, available at
 It is important to keep in mind that United Nations human rights mechanisms regularly raise with Member States human rights education and training issues. For instance, the treaty bodies, when examining reports of States parties, may place emphasis on the obligation of States parties to implement human rights education and training, and may reflect that emphasis in their concluding observations; thematic and country mechanisms of the Human Rights Council (including the special procedures, as well as working groups) may include in their reports progress in human rights education and training; and human rights education and training is also raised in the context of the universal periodic review. In addition, a specific UNESCO mechanism addresses the monitoring of the implementation of the 1974 UNESCO Recommendation Concerning Education for International Understanding, Co-operation and Peace and Education Relating to Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms.