Resources

Joint Declarations

Since 1999, the UN Special Rapporteur, together with the Special Rapporteur on Freedom of Expression and the African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights (ACHPR) Special Rapporteur on Freedom of Expression and Access to Information, the Organization of American States (OAS) Special Rapporteur on Freedom of Expression and the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) Representative on Freedom of the Media, has issued annually a Joint Declaration on freedom of expression, reaffirming its central role for human rights and fundamental freedoms.

  • 2021 Joint Declaration on ‘Politicians and Public Officials and Freedom of Expression’.
  • 2020 Joint Declaration on Freedom of Expression and Elections in the Digital Age
  • 2019 Joint Declaration on Challenges to Freedom of Expression in the Next Decade
  • 2018 Joint Declaration on Media Independence and Diversity in the Digital Age
  • 2017 Joint Declaration on freedom of expression and “fake news”, disinformation and propaganda
  • 2016 Joint Declaration on Freedom of Expression and Countering Violent Extremism
  • 2015 Joint Declaration on Freedom of Expression and Responses to Conflict Situations
  • 2014 Joint Declaration on Universality and the Right to Freedom of Expression
  • 2013 Joint Declaration on the protection of freedom of expression and diversity in the digital terrestrial transition
  • 2012 Joint Declaration on crimes against freedom of expression
  • 2011 Joint Declaration on freedom of expression and the Internet
  • 2010 Joint Declaration on key challenges to media freedom
  • 2009 Joint Statement on the Media and Elections
  • 2008 Joint Declaration on Defamation of Religions, and Anti-Terrorism and Anti-Extremism Legislation
  • 2007 Statement from International Mechanisms for Promoting Freedom of Expression
  • 2006 Statement from International Mechanisms for Promoting Freedom of Expression
  • 2005 Statement from International Mechanisms for Promoting Freedom of Expression
  • 2004 Statement from International Mechanisms for Promoting Freedom of Expression
  • 2003 Statement from International Mechanisms for Promoting Freedom of Expression
  • 2002 Statement from International Mechanisms for Promoting Freedom of Expression
  • 2001 Statement from International Mechanisms for Promoting Freedom of Expression
  • 2000 Statement from International Mechanisms for Promoting Freedom of Expression
  • 1999 Statement from International Mechanisms for Promoting Freedom of Expression

Fact sheets

The following factsheets are part of a project that aims to summarize the Special Rapporteur’ on the promotion and protection of the right to freedom of opinion and expression’s reports and key points in international law in a concise and easy-to-use format. Each factsheet covers a particular area of international law, from an enabling environment for freedom of expression to aspects related to freedom of expression and new technologies.

Research papers

The following research papers were independently published by the Special Rapporteur on the promotion and protection of the right to freedom of opinion and expression in order to elaborate on certain themes related to the mandate.

Freedom of Expression and Oversight of Online Content Moderation
This research paper, published in July 2020, aims to update the Special Rapporteur’s 2018 report on the State regulation and company moderation of online content (A/HRC/38/35).

Building on the 2018 Report, this report evaluates recent developments in content moderation oversight, with a particular focus on company initiatives and the emerging Oversight Board.

Freedom of Expression and Elections in the Digital Age
This research paper, published in June 2019, examines the international standards and principles applicable to the protection of freedom of opinion and expression during elections in the digital age.

In a 2014 report to the Human Rights Council (A/HRC/26/30), the Special Rapporteur examined the State’s obligations to respect and ensure freedom of expression in electoral contexts. This paper reviews the nature and scope of these obligations in light of advances in technology and their impact on elections.

Encryption and Anonymity
This research paper, published in June 2018, aims to update the Special Rapporteur’s 2015 report on the use of encryption and anonymity to exercise the rights to freedom of opinion and expression in the digital age (A/HRC/29/32).

The paper reveals that three year after the publication of the Special Rapporteur’s report, the challenges users face have increased substantially, while States often see personal, digital security as antithetical to law enforcement, intelligence, and even goals of social or political control.


Special Procedures
​Special Rapporteur on Freedom of Expression and opinion
​Recent thematic reports
​Contact information

Ms. Irene Khan
Special Rapporteur on the promotion and protection of the right to freedom of opinion and expression
OHCHR-UNOG
8-14 Avenue de la Paix
1211 Geneve 10, Switzerland

Fax: +41 22 917 9006
Email: OHCHR-freedex@un.org

External links