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Call for input: Report on Anti-Muslim Hatred and Discrimination
Special Rapporteur on freedom of religion or belief
Preparation for the report to the 46th Session of Human Rights Council
Objectives of the Report
The Special Rapporteur would like to continue examining in depth the manifestation of intolerance, hatred and discrimination against persons based on their religion or belief. In this specific report, he would be examining
anti-Muslim hatred and discrimination in accordance with his mandate to identify existing and emerging obstacles to the enjoyment of the right to freedom of thought, conscience, religion or belief, including gender-related dimensions of the phenomenon.
In this report, the Special Rapporteur will attempt to
- Analyse various conceptual framings and understandings of anti-Muslim hatred / Islamophobia;
- Examine the manifestations of different forms of anti-Muslim hatred and discrimination, including stigmatisation, profiling and negative stereotyping of Muslims in various political, social and religious contexts, including where States have an established/official religion or not, where Muslim communities form the majority or minority of the population; and where there are different sects of Muslim communities;
- Identify and analyse the root causes, rise and spread of anti-Muslim hatred by State and non-State actors, both online and offline;
- Explore the experiences of direct and indirect forms of discrimination and hatred faced by Muslims on the basis of perceived and actual religious identity, including gendered perspectives;
- Map efforts to combat anti-Muslim hatred and discrimination and identify good practices carried out by States, intergovernmental bodies, and non-State actors, including media and civil society (including faith-based actors); and
- Provide stakeholders, including States, with recommendations in identifying, tackling and preventing the spread of anti-Muslim hatred.
Key inputs/questions for the report
Please find below a non-exhaustive indicative list of issues that the Special Rapporteur seeks information from individuals and organizations. It is not necessary to respond to all the issues listed below and you may provide any further information that is relevant to the topic.
1. Please provide information on what you understand by the terms Islamophobia and anti-Muslim hatred; on the intersection between anti-Muslim hatred, racism and xenophobia and on the historical and modern contexts, including geopolitical, socio-and religious factors, of anti-Muslim hatred.
Discrimination in law and practice
details of specific legal provisions, policies and practices on the following:
a) Restrictions on the exercise and manifestation of the right to freedom of religion of belief in private or in community with others. For example, restrictions on:
- the construction and use of mosques;
- the display of religious symbols or dress codes at work or in public places;
- the conduct of prayers or religious ceremonies in public;
- the production and dissemination of religious material;
- the observance of dietary requirements and other religious rites such a male circumcision;
- the training and appointment of clergy;
- the provision of religious education or the exercise of parental liberties on education of children, as well as
- discriminatory registration requirements of religious organisations or institutions.
b) Discriminatory laws and practices, both in public and private services, against Muslims, in the area of:
civil and political rights, including but not limited to participation and representation in the public life, access to justice and effective remedies, liberty and security, freedoms of expression, peaceful assembly, association and movement; asylum, immigration and citizenship;
economic, social and cultural rights, including but not limited to the rights to adequate food and housing, education, employment and healthcare.
c) Counter-terrorism measures, preventing violent extremism legislations, de-radicalisation programmes, migration and integration policies, anti-foreigners or citizenship laws that evidently discriminate against Muslims based on religious or racial profiling and have negative impacts on them, for example, leading to arbitrary arrests, detention or sentencing.
Social attitude, hate speech, attacks and violence against Muslims
descriptions, reports or data of
- Hate speech, whether online or offline, by political or religious leaders and other individuals against Muslims;
- Disinformation and harmful stereotyping of Muslim communities by State media or private/social media outlets, including in the context of COVID-19 pandemic;
- Social isolation or distance from Muslim communities;
- State-sponsored violence against Muslims, for example, genocide, mass killings, mass internment, reproductive control, forced displacement, etc.;
- Sectarian hatred or violence by State or non-State actors, including in situations of armed conflict or political instability;
- Acts of violence or incitement to violence by individuals or political, vigilante, or paramilitary groups that target Muslims due to real or perceived religious identity;
- Attacks on places of worship, sites of Islamic cultural heritage, madrassas, and desecration of cemeteries and Quran or holy books as well as killings and blasphemy charges against converts, dissenters, or followers of different Muslim sects; and
- Abduction, forced marriage or conversion of Muslims.
- Public reactions towards violent attacks against Muslims, including unrecognised and minority Muslims, and their homes, businesses, madrassas, and places of worship;
- Public reactions towards Muslim communities, including unrecognised and minority Muslims, when a terrorist attack took place in the country.
Multiple discrimination and hatred suffered by Muslims in vulnerable situations
Often Muslims in vulnerable situations encounter multiple human rights challenges in addition to the discrimination based on their actual or perceived religious identities, please provide any
data or reports in particular relating to
- Muslim refugees, migrants and stateless persons;
- Muslim children;
- Muslim girls, women, and LGBT+ persons;
- Muslim persons with disabilities;
- Members of recognised and unrecognised minority Muslim sects, Muslims perceived to be secular or Muslims who converted into other religions or become atheists.
Good practice in identifying and tackling anti-Muslim hatred, undertaken by civil society and international organisations:
elaborate and provide examples of
- Promotion of interfaith dialogue, peace or youth projects and other initiatives that combat religious intolerance, especially anti-Muslim hatred;
- Promotion of social inclusion by encouraging the participation of Muslims in cultural, religious, social and public or political life;
- Examples of the use of educational curriculum and institutions of learning to combat anti-Muslim hatred, negative stereotyping and stigmatisation.
- Advocacy for equal rights and access to housing, food, healthcare and education, security and protection, etc.by Muslims, especially those in vulnerable situations;
- Effective monitoring, reporting and analysis of anti-Muslim hatred and discrimination, including hate speech, attacks and violence against Muslims;
- Successful public, media or social campaigns in combating anti-Muslim hatred, discrimination, stigmatisation and negative religious stereotyping;
- Examples of positive narratives, solidarity messages and speaking out against anti-Muslim hatred, even in the aftermath of a terrorist attack;
- Successful examples of overcoming sectarian hatred and violence through inter and intra-religious dialogues;
- Successful programmes in providing legal, psychosocial and economic support victims of anti-Muslim hatred, discrimination and violence;
- Effective protection of women and girls as well as LGBT+ persons from anti-Muslim hatred;
- Awareness-raising, training and strict enforcement of ethical guidelines to all public and private sectors employees in relation non-discrimination principles based on religion or belief;
- Adoption and use of codes of conduct by political parties and sport associations that combat anti-Muslim hatred.
How and where to submit inputs
E-mail subject line
Input for HRC46 Report
Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, United Nations Office at Geneva, CH 1211 Geneva 10, Switzerland
Treatment of inputs received
The Special Rapporteur will study and analyse the submissions, from which, some information may be referenced or illustrated in his report as appropriate. Please note that submissions and inputs are considered public records unless expressed otherwise by the submitting individual or organization. The submissions will subsequently be published on the website of the Special Rapporteur.
THANK YOU FOR YOUR CONTRIBUTION!