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Human rights and climate change


"Climate change is a reality that now affects every region of the world. The human implications of currently projected levels of global heating are catastrophic. Storms are rising and tides could submerge entire island nations and coastal cities. Fires rage through our forests, and the ice is melting. We are burning up our future – literally."

Michelle Bachelet, United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, 9 September 2019, Opening Statement to the 42nd session of the Human Rights Council

Climate change threatens the effective enjoyment of a range of human rights including those to life, water and sanitation, food, health, housing, self-determination, culture and development. States have a human rights obligation to prevent the foreseeable adverse effects of climate change and ensure that those affected by it, particularly those in vulnerable situations, have access to effective remedies and means of adaptation to enjoy lives of human dignity.

Read more about how climate change impacts on human rights.

Role of OHCHR

The human rights framework spells out the responsibilities of duty bearers to rights-holders with respect to all human rights harms, including those caused by environmental degradation. OHCHR's 2018-2021 Office Management Plan aims at ensuring that: "International and national environmental and climate policies and plans increasingly are implemented in accordance with international human rights standards."

OHCHR aims, in line with the 2030 Agenda and the Paris Agreement on climate change, to promote a human rights-based approach to climate action. This requires that States take ambitious adaptation and mitigation measures that are inclusive and respectful of communities affected by climate change.

We aim to achieve this through:

  • Collaboration with partners to integrate human rights in environmental laws and policies;
  • Support for the inclusion of civil society in environmental decision-making processes, access to information and effective remedies for victims;
  • Assisting human rights mechanisms to address environmental issues, including climate change;
  • Advocacy on behalf of environmental human rights defenders and supporting efforts by the UN system to protect them;
  • Research and advocacy to address human rights harms caused by environmental degradation, particularly to groups in vulnerable situations.

Our engagement on environmental issues has already had substantial impact. OHCHR's involvement in Rio+20 led to the inclusion of human rights references in the outcome document "The Future We Want." Our advocacy and the work of the special procedures mechanisms of the Human Rights Council contributed to the inclusion of human rights and the 1.5 °C global target in the Paris Agreement.

Read more about OHCHR's role in climate change and human rights.

Latest reports and publications

OHCHR Key Messages on Human Rights and Climate Change
PDF: English

Human Rights and Climate Change Factsheet (October 2018)
PDF: English

Analytical study on the promotion and protection of the rights of persons with disabilities in the context of climate change (April 2020) Read more about this issue View report A/HRC/44/30 | View easy-to-read format

Joint ECLAC/OHCHR publication on Climate change and human rights: contributions by and for Latin America and the Caribbean (December 2019) PDF: English | Spanish

Summary of the panel discussion on women's rights and climate change: climate action, good practices and lessons learned (July 2019) Read more about this issue | View report A/HRC/42/26

Analytical study on gender-responsive climate action for the full and effective enjoyment of the rights of women (May 2019) Read more about this issue | View report A/HRC/41/26

The slow onset effects of climate change and human rights protection for cross-border migrants (March 2018) Read more about this issue | View report A/HRC/37/35

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