Forced evictions and human rights

“The practice of forced eviction constitutes a gross violation of human rights, in particular the right to adequate housing.”

- Commission on Human Rights, Resolution 1993/77

Every year, millions of people around the world are forcibly evicted from their homes and their land, often leaving them living in extreme poverty and destitution. Forced evictions can be severely traumatic. They set back even further the lives of those that are already marginalized or vulnerable in society. Moreover, forced evictions violate a wide range of internationally recognized human rights, including the rights to adequate housing, food, water, health, education, work, security of the person, freedom from cruel, inhuman and degrading treatment, and freedom of movement.

The international framework

Forced eviction is “the permanent or temporary removal against their will of individuals, families and/or communities from the homes and/or land which they occupy, without the provision of, and access to, appropriate forms of legal or other protection” (Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, general comment No. 7).

In exceptional circumstances, evictions may be permissible under international human rights law. Yet, they need to be fully justified, authorized by law and in full compliance with relevant provisions of international human rights and humanitarian law, and subject to recourse.

Learn more about various forms of forced evictions and international legal obligations

Fact sheet 25/Rev.1: Forced EvictionsFact Sheet No. 25/Rev.1 on Forced Evictions

PDF : العربية | 中文 | English | Français | Русский | Español

Assessing forced evictions

The Forced evictions Assessment Questionnaire is a tool for addressing situations of forced eviction. It offers guidance on putting events in context, assessing the human rights impact, offering practical advice to all those involved, and monitoring and reporting on the situation.

Eviction impact assessment methodologies

The impacts of forced evictions go far beyond material losses, leading to greater inequality, marginalization and social conflicts. In the context of development, infrastructure projects, land acquisitions, urban renewal and mega events, eviction impact assessments are needed to:

  • Consider the wide range of impacts, and argue in favour of less harmful solutions and alternatives to the foreseen project;
  • Estimate the real costs related to eviction and displacement of individuals and community that goes far beyond the mere market price of physical structures; and
  • Allow for a better quantification of claims, including in regard to compensation.

Learn more

How to report human rights violations related to forced evictions

Requests for information and complaints of violations of human rights as a result of evictions can be addressed to various human rights mechanisms. A useful overview of these mechanisms can be found in this handbook.

Latest news

More press releases

Feature Stories

Film on fair housing features international human rights law
Film on fair housing features international human rights law
A new film highlights the case of Seljatin Burgazi and 60 other Roma families, who were saved from eviction through the use of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights.
20 May 2016
Working for a more inclusive policy towards migrant Roma in France
Working for a more inclusive policy towards migrant Roma in France
The UN Human Rights Regional Office for Europe works with civil society organizations and the French Government to change the policy of forced evictions of migrant Roma in France.
18 October 2013
Paving the way to a better future for Roma families in Serbia
Paving the way to a better future for Roma families in Serbia
The United Nations Human Rights Office and its partners engaged with the Serbian Government to ensure human rights standards were observed in the process of moving Roma families from the slums of Serbia’s capital Belgrade.
24 June 2013


Serbia Housing Rights
20 May 2016
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Stop Forced Evictions
15 December 2015
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This video is also available in Español and Français.