Annual thematic reports of the Special Rapporteur on contemporary forms of racism

The Special Rapporteur submits annual thematic reports to the June session of the Human Rights Council (formerly Commission on Human Rights), as well as to the July session of the General Assembly. Thematic reports document the Special Rapporteur’s findings on particular topics and provide guidance and recommendations for UN member States, civil society organizations and other stakeholders.

The Special Rapporteur also submits yearly reports on topics related to the glorification of Nazism, neo-Nazism and and other practices that contribute to fuelling contemporary forms of racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance.

In the past, specific resolutions mandated the Special Rapporteur to submit additional reports/studies on a variety of topics. View these here.

Finally, country visit reports can be found on the Country Visits page.

Thematic reports to the General Assembly and Human Rights Council

Session

Symbol/Topic

Summary

2019 74th session GA

A/74/321

Reparation for racial discrimination

In the present report, the Special Rapporteur on contemporary forms of racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and racial intolerance addresses the human rights obligations of Member States in relation to reparations for racial discrimination rooted in slavery and colonialism.


2019

41st session HRC

A/HRC/41/54
Global extractivism and racial equality

The report addresses the issue of racial equality and natural resource extractivism. It explains why racial equality and non-discrimination obligations enshrined in the international human rights framework must be central to reform, regulation and evaluation of the extractivism economy. It develops (1) a structural racial equality analysis at a global level that foregrounds the racially subordinating effects of unequal distribution of power among nation-states, and between nation-states and transnational corporations; and (2) a more localized racial equality analysis at the national that foregrounds the racially discriminatory human rights violations experienced by communities living directly on or close to territories of extraction. The report presents some recommendations addressed to all stakeholders to ensure human rights protections in the extractivism economy, especially to tackle global structural racial inequality that is rooted in persisting sovereign inequality.

2018

73rd session GA

A/73/305

Nationalist populism

The report analyses the threat posed by nationalist populism to the fundamental human rights principles of non-discrimination and equality. The focus of the report is ascendant nationalist populist ideologies and strategies that pose a sobering threat to racial equality by fuelling discrimination, intolerance and the creation of institutions and structures that will have enduring legacies of racial exclusion. The report condemns nationalist populism that advances exclusionary or repressive practices and policies that harm individuals or groups on the basis of their race, ethnicity, national origin and religion, including in combination with gender, sexual orientation, disability status, migratory status or other related social categories.

2018

38th session HRC

A/HRC/38/52
Racial discrimination in the context of in the context of laws, policies and practices concerning citizenship, nationality and immigration

Additional recommendations

The report addresses the issue of racial discrimination in the context of laws, policies and practices concerning citizenship, nationality and immigration. It identifies and reviews contemporary racist and xenophobic ideologies, and institutionalized laws, policies and practices, which together have a racially discriminatory effect on individuals’ and groups’ access to citizenship, nationality and immigration status. It shows how both are prohibited under international human rights law and recommends concrete actions States must take to fulfil their obligations to achieve substantive racial equality. It highlights the impact of ethno-nationalism, and draws attention to how ethno-nationalists and other groups manipulate national anxieties about national security and economic prosperity to achieve and advance racist and xenophobic policies against indigenous peoples, non-nationals and other minority groups.

2017 72nd session GA

A/72/287 Combatting racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance in a counter-terrorism context

The Special Rapporteur analyses the challenges linked to combatting racism, xenophobia and discrimination in the current counter-terrorism context. First, he discusses the various manifestations of racism, racial discrimination and xenophobia emerging from State counter-terrorism measures as well as the human rights implications of such practices for affected communities. The Special Rapporteur then provides an overview of relevant international, regional and national norms prohibiting racism and xenophobia, especially in the context of countering terrorism. Drawing from an expert meeting he convened on this topic, the Special Rapporteur examines key legal, policy and institutional measures taken by relevant stakeholders and highlights some examples of good practices in combatting racism, xenophobia and discrimination while countering terrorism.

2017

35th session HRC

A/HRC/35/41
Overview of the thematic work of the mandate
Combatting racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance in a counter-terrorism context 

The report provides and overview of the thematic work undertaken by the mandate since its creation.
Furthermore, the Special Rapporteur analyses the challenges of combating racism, xenophobia and discrimination in the current context of countering terrorism. He discusses how hate crimes, xenophobia against migrants and the security measures taken by some Governments in the context of countering terrorism may contribute to fuelling racism, xenophobia and discrimination against certain persons or groups owing to their ethnic origin, religion or migration status. He also analyses key legal and policy measures taken at national, regional and international levels to counter racism, xenophobia and other forms of discrimination in the context of countering terrorism and highlights examples of good practices aimed at eliminating racism, xenophobia and discrimination in the context of countering terrorism. 

2016 71st session GA

A/71/301
The role of National Human Rights Institutions and national action plans

The Special Rapporteur discusses the important role played by national specialized bodies and national plans of action in preventing and combating racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance. Drawing from responses to a questionnaire sent to Member States and relevant stakeholders and other information, he highlights some examples of good practices undertaken by national specialized bodies and in national plans of action to combat racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance.

2016

32th session HRC

A/HRC/32/50
Xenophobia: Its conceptualization, trends and manifestations 

 

In light of the migration crisis, the report focuses on the phenomenon of xenophobia, its conceptualization, trends and manifestations. The Special Rapporteur proposes that xenophobia can be said to exist when individuals are denied equal rights on account of the real or perceived geographic origins of the said individuals or groups, or the values, beliefs and/or practices associated with such individuals or groups that make them appear as foreigners or “outsiders”. This may be explicit and obvious, such as discrimination against recent migrants or refugees. It may also be less directly tied to a recent migration history and may target members of different communities who have lived alongside each other for generations. The Special Rapporteur lays down key elements that need to be taken into consideration in order to enhance the effectiveness of policies and measures to combat xenophobia.

2015 70th session GA

A/70/335 Collection of disaggregated data

The report focuses on the recommendation made to Member States to collect disaggregated data with a view to effectively combating such discrimination. The Special Rapporteur recalls that States have obligations under international human rights law to collect ethically disaggregated data with a view to fighting discrimination. He expresses concern about the continued absence of data disaggregated by ethnicity and other prohibited grounds of discrimination. The Special Rapporteur notes that the lack of disaggregated data on racist, xenophobic and hate crimes also means that they remain under-recorded, thus contributing to widespread impunity and limited access to remedies for victims. The Special Rapporteur stresses the indispensable role and benefits of collecting such disaggregated data to effectively combat discrimination and implement equality. He also emphasizes how the challenges posed by such data collection exercises can be overcome by observing internationally agreed-upon human rights safeguards.

2015

29th session HRC

A/HRC/29/46
Racial and ethnic profiling in law enforcement

 

The report examines the use of racial and ethnic profiling by law enforcement, security and border control officials, particularly in the context of immigration and national security policies.
The Special Rapporteur examines the contexts that have led to the use of racial and ethnic profiling and provides an overview of the different manifestations. He discusses the legal, policy and regulatory frameworks prohibiting racial and ethnic profiling, and the policies and laws adopted at the international, regional and national levels, and then presents different examples of good practices that have been initiated to counter and eliminate the use of racial and ethnic profiling.

2014 69th session GA

A/69/340
Racism in sport

The Special Rapporteur examines racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance in sports, building upon the work initiated by his predecessors, and illustrates some manifestations of racism in team and individual sports. He then discusses the applicable legislation and standards at the international, regional and national levels, and presents some of the initiatives of sports federations and civil society that focus on preventing and combating racism in sports.

2014

26th session HRC

A/HRC/26/49
Manifestations of racism on the Internet and social media

 

The Special Rapporteur examines the context, key trends and the manifestations of racism on the Internet and social media, and provides an overview of the legal and policy frameworks and the measures taken at international, regional and national levels, as well as some of the regulatory norms adopted by Internet and social network providers. He presents examples of measures taken to respond to the use of the Internet and social media to propagate racism, hatred, xenophobia and related intolerance, while highlighting the overall positive contribution of the Internet and social media as an effective tool for combating racism, discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance.

2013 68th session GA

A/68/333
Poverty and Racism

The report focuses on the intersection between poverty and racism. The Special Rapporteur refers to the inherent issues of poverty and racism, starting with an overview of legal and policy frameworks at the national, regional and international levels; discussing the manifestations of poverty and racism, in the areas of economic and social rights such as education, adequate housing, and health care, other rights affected in this connection between racism and poverty including the right to work in just conditions, social security, food and water. The Special Rapporteur then provides an overview of the different groups victims of discrimination that are affected by poverty and racism and underlines some examples of positive measures taken to prevent poverty and discrimination.

2013

23rd session HRC

A/HRC/23/56
The role of education to prevent racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance

As a follow-up to his commitment to focus on both prevention and enforcement mechanisms, the Special Rapporteur focuses on the central role of education to preventing and combating racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance, given its role in creating new values and attitudes.

2012 67th session GA

A/67/326
Racism and the internet

The Special Rapporteur focuses on key issues and challenges posed by the increasing use of the Internet to disseminate racist ideas and incite racial hatred and violence and on identifying possible measures that can be taken in line with the provisions of the Durban Declaration and Programme of Action. The report also highlights the potential role and positive contribution of the Internet as an effective tool for combating racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance.

2012

20th session HRC

A/HRC/20/33
The prevention of racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance in line with the provisions of the Durban documents

 

The report focuses on the prevention of racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance in line with the provisions of the Durban documents: The Durban Declaration and Programme of Action underlines the central role of measures of prevention aimed at the eradication of racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance at the national, regional and international levels. The outcome document of the Durban Review Conference further stresses the need to increase appropriate preventive measures and emphasizes the important role that Governments, international and regional organizations, national human rights institutions, the media, non-governmental organizations and civil society can play in developing such measures.

2011 66th session GA

A/66/313

This report addresses manifestations and forms of racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance; victims of racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance; and best practices in the fight against racism, racial discrimination. Manifestations discussed include structural discrimination, which refers to racist, xenophobic or intolerant patterns of behaviours and attitudes within societal structures that target specific individuals or groups of individuals, in relation to their race, colour, descent, or national or ethnic origin; incitement to national, racial or religious hatred; and extremist political parties, movements and groups, including neo-Nazis and skinhead groups, and similar extremist ideological movements. The Special Rapporteur has emphasized the need for a victim-oriented approach in order to ensure that actions taken truly respond to the concrete needs of those experiencing racism and discrimination. He highlights the needs of specific victims, including people of African descent; Roma people; and discrimination based on work and descent, including discrimination based on caste and analogous systems of inherited status.

2011

17th session HRC

A/HRC/17/40

This report addresses racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance against the Roma people and discrimination based on work and descent, including discrimination based on caste and analogous systems of inherited status.

2010 65th session GA

A/65/295

This report discussed the thematic issues addressed by the Special Rapporteur in annual reports, conferences, seminars and other meetings. These issues include how conflict and racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance interrelate; incitement to racial or religious hatred; human rights challenges faced by migrants, refugees and asylum-seekers, including stricter border and immigration policies imposed by States; collection of ethnically disaggregated data, which is a prerequisite of any action aimed at tackling the socio-economic vulnerability of persons belonging to ethnic or national minorities; and the issue of racism and sports.

2010

14th session HRC

A/HRC/14/43

This report focuses on the thematic issue of racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance and situations of conflict and distinguishes between pre-conflict, conflict, and post-conflict situations. In the pre-conflict section, there is an analysis of how racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance marginalize certain groups of society, which contributes to the triggering of tensions or acts of violence between certain groups of the population. This can include issues of the concept of national identity, socioeconomic discrimination, and the political manipulation of racist or nationalist ideology. In the situations of conflict section, the Special Rapporteur examines how speech may exacerbate and aggravate violence perpetrated against certain individuals or groups of individuals in situations of conflict. In the post-conflict section, the Special Rapporteur addresses the need to address the root causes of conflict in order to ensure lasting and sustainable peace and reconciliation. This may include acknowledging the ethnic or racial dimension of the conflict, recognizing and addressing human rights violations, including racial discrimination, maintaining vigilance on renewed incitement to hatred and violence, and ensuring the participation of and genuine dialogue among all components of society.

2009 64th session GA

A/64/271

This report discusses the activities of Special Rapporteur, including the thematic issues addressed by the Special Rapporteur through his participation in conferences, seminars and other meetings. The Special Rapporteur addressed incitement to racial or religious hatred; racism and poverty, as poverty puts members of minorities in a vicious cycle; the issue of genocide, ethnic cleansing and other war crimes, which are traditionally linked with the emergence of exclusionary ideologies based on race or ethnicity; and discrimination based on descent.

2009

11th session HRC

A/HRC/11/36

This report focuses on the thematic issue of poverty and racism. A central dimension of the fight against racism is the overlap between two key social indicators: class and race or ethnicity. Because of many reasons, including the lack of ethnically disaggregated data, the links between these indicators have not been fully explored. However, the socioeconomic vulnerability of minorities is generally the result of historic legacy, such as slavery in the American continent, systems of inherited status, and systems of formalized and State-sponsored discrimination against minorities around the world. The Special Rapporteur then addresses the need for special measures to correct historical imbalances.

2008 63rd session GA

A/63/339

This report addresses the activities of the Special Rapporteur without a thematic component.

2008

7th session HRC

A/HRC/7/19 

This report addresses contemporary manifestations of racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance. These manifestations include political programmes which incite or encourage racial discrimination, including trivialization of racism, racial discrimination and xenophobia and the increased influence of extreme right-wing parties and movements; incitement to racial, ethnic or religious hatred; religious intolerance; rejection of multiculturalism; discrimination against refugees, immigrants and asylum-seekers, including in waiting areas where there is lack of access to redress or defense, physical and verbal violence of a racist nature, the absence of lack of hygiene, and the inadequacy of measures to protect women and children; and discrimination on the grounds of caste, which affects 250 million people around the world, particularly in Asia and Africa.

2007 62nd session GA

A/62/306

The most serious manifestations include the resurgence of racist and xenophobic violence seen in the growing number of acts of physical violence and murders targeting members of ethnic, cultural, or religious communities; the political normalization and democratic legitimization of racism and xenophobia; and the growing expression by elites of racism and xenophobia.

2007

4th session HRC

A/HRC/4/19

This report addresses contemporary manifestations of racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance. These manifestations include incitement to racial or religious hatred, which include the trivialization of racism and xenophobia at the political level, the refusal of diversity, and in the hierarchical structure of fundamental freedoms; Islamophobia, anti-Semitism and Christianophobia; multiculturalism and racism; racism, discrimination and xenophobia at points of entry, and in reception and waiting areas experienced by asylum-seekers, refugees, and immigrants; and racism and sport.

2006 61st session GA

A/61/335

This report addresses the activities of the Special Rapporteur, including participation in various meetings and conferences. This section includes the activities of the Special Rapporteur in three primary areas: the resurgence of racism, racial discrimination and xenophobia; efforts to combat the defamation of religions and to promote interreligious dialogue; and the resurgence of racist incidents in sporting events.

2006

62nd session CHR

E/CN.4/2006/16

This report addresses contemporary manifestations of racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance. These manifestations include multiculturalism and racism, which is an underlying factor and central issue in present-day crises in most regions of the world; anti-Semitism, which is exhibited through an increase in individual acts, resilience of intellectual legitimization, and political exploitation, and Christianophobia; intellectual legitimization of racism and xenophobia; racism, discrimination and xenophobia at points of entry, and in reception and waiting areas experienced by asylum-seekers, refugees and immigrants; and racism and sport.

2005 60th session GA

A/60/283

This report addresses manifestations of racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance. Manifestations discussed include the treatment of foreign nationals, asylum-seekers, refugees and immigrants in waiting areas, particularly airports, ports, and stations, arising from the overemphasis on the fight against terrorism; and the increase of racist incidents in sports, particularly football.

2005

61st session CHR

E/CN.4/2005/18

This report addresses contemporary manifestations of racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance. These manifestations include the impact of identity constructions on racism, discrimination and xenophobia, which led to racist and violent acts committed to protect a national identity that is “in peril”; the hierarchy of forms of discrimination and intellectual justification of racism and xenophobia, which represents a serious setback in the fight against racism and racial discrimination; the rise of parties and movements with racist and xenophobic platforms; racism and sport; and discrimination against the Roma, in areas including health and education.

2004 59th session GA

A/59/329

This report addresses manifestations of racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance. Manifestations discussed include the upsurge of xenophobia; the marginalization of efforts to combat discrimination; racist propaganda on the Internet; increasing racism in sports; and racism connected with anti-Semitism and Islamophobia.

2004

60th session CHR

E/CN.4/2004/18

This report addresses contemporary manifestations of racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance. These manifestations include isolationism and the rejection of ethnic and cultural diversity, encouraged by the globalization’s encouragement of uniformity; racial profiling in areas such as criminal justice, immigration, and counter-terrorism efforts; racial discrimination against the Roma people; and expressions of racism related to anti-Semitism and Islamophobia.

2003 58th session GA

A/58/313

This report addresses manifestations of racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance. Manifestations discussed include racist propaganda on the Internet; a recent increase in racist and xenophobic acts and remarks at sporting events, particularly in European football stadiums towards players of African origin and among supporters towards Jewish individuals; and racism connected with anti-Semitism and Islamophobia.

2003

59th session CHR

E/CN.4/2003/24

This report addresses contemporary expressions of racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance. These expressions include the prevalence of racism, racial discrimination and xenophobia in politics, highlighting the situation in Côte d’Ivoire and Guyana; racial discrimination against the Roma people; and anti-Semitism

2002 57th session GA

A/57/204

This report addresses manifestations of racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance. Manifestations discussed include a resurgence of racism, racial discrimination and xenophobia; measures adopted with respect to immigration; stigmatization of Muslims and Arabs, who are seen as “hand in glove” with terrorists; discrimination of Roma people; racial profiling in airports; racist propaganda on the Internet; and anti-Semitism.

2002

58th session CHR

E/CN.4/2002/24

This report addresses contemporary manifestations of racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance. These manifestations include the impact of the attacks of 11 September 2001 in the United States of America on Muslims Arabs and other population groups of Asian origin, which includes an increase in insults, physical assaults, and destruction of property; anti-Semitism; racist violence and activities of far-right, neo-Nazi, and skinhead organizations; and the situation of the Roma people.

2001 56th session GA

A/56/228

*Only an oral report was presented to the General Assembly

2001

57th session CHR

E/CN.4/2001/21

This report addresses contemporary manifestations of racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance. These manifestations include anti-Semitism; racist violence, activities of far-right neo-Nazi and skinhead organizations and other racist act; discriminatory application of the death penalty, particularly in the United States; environmental racism, particularly the situation of a community with 90 percent African-Americans in Florida that is threatened by the presence of of a toxic waste dump close to their residential area; discrimination in combating drug use and trafficking, particularly in the United States where black people comprise the great majority of drug offenders sent to prison despite the fact that most drug offenders are white; and the situation of the Dalits, especially women, who are the victims of violence and atrocities.

2000 55th session GA

A/55/304

This report addresses contemporary manifestations of racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance. Manifestations addressed include racist or xenophobic violence and activities of the far-right, neo-Nazi, and skinhead organizations, including anti-Semitism and discrimination against Black people; and racist propaganda on the Internet.

2000

56th session CHR

E/CN.4/2000/16

This report addresses contemporary manifestations of racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance. The manifestations addressed include discrimination against Black people, including in the criminal justice system in the United States; anti-Semitism around the world; and discrimination against the Roma.

1999 54th session GA

A/54/347

This report addresses contemporary manifestations of racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance. Manifestations addressed include the increase in racist propaganda on the Internet; racist violence and activities of far-right and neo-Nazi organizations; anti-Semitism; and insidious and subtle forms of racism and racial discrimination (such as hindering career development).

1999

55th session CHR

E/CN.4/1999/15

This report addresses contemporary manifestations of racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance. Manifestations include the activities of the far right and neo-Nazi movements; discrimination against Black people; racism and racial discrimination against Arab people; anti-Semitism; discrimination against the Roma people, including police violence, violence by skinheads and others, and systematic racial discrimination in education, entry to public spaces, and citizenship; and the question of the untouchables in India.

1998 53rd session GA

A/53/269

This report addresses contemporary manifestations of racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance. Manifestations discussed include the resurgence of neo-fascism and neo-Nazism; discrimination against immigrants and migrant workers; anti-Semitism; exploitation and manipulation of ethnicity for political purposes; and the use of the Internet to disseminate racism and racial discrimination.

1998

54th session CHR

E/CN.4/1998/79

This report addresses contemporary manifestations of racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance. These manifestations include discrimination against Black people; discrimination against Arabs and Muslims; perpetration of anti-Semitic acts in certain countries; discrimination against the Roma people; discrimination against migrant workers; and discrimination and incitement to racial hatred on the Internet.

1997 52nd session GA

A/52/471

This report addresses contemporary manifestations of racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia. Manifestations discussed include discrimination against immigrants and migrant workers; human rights violations in holding areas in France; the role of the media in inciting racial violence; discrimination against the Roma people; and discriminatory application of the death penalty in the United States.

1997

53rd session CHR

E/CN.4/1997/71

This report addresses the contemporary manifestations of racism, racial discrimination and xenophobia. The manifestations include contributions by Governments and public bodies to action; discrimination against Black people and Arab people; anti-Semitism; discrimination against the Roma people; and discrimination against migrant workers.

1996 51st session GA

A/51/301

This report addresses contemporary forms and manifestations of racism, racial discrimination and xenophobia. Manifestations of racism and racial discrimination addressed include increased regulations on immigrants or migrant workers which refer directly or indirectly to their racial identity and national or ethnic origin; xenophobia; resurgence of denial of the holocaust in France; increase in arson cases of African-American churches in the southern United States; and incitement to racial hatred through electronic and computer networks.

1996

52nd session CHR

E/CN.4/1996/72
 

This report addresses the activities of the Special Rapporteur and the thematic issue of anti-Semitism throughout the world. He includes a segment of a communication from the Israeli Government detailing the worldwide escalation of violent anti-Semitic activities, including violent attacks, damage to cemeteries, Jewish institutions and property, and the increasingly sophisticated methods for disseminating anti-Semitic propaganda.

1995 50th session GA

A/50/476

This report addresses contemporary manifestations of racism and racial discrimination. Manifestations discussed include the emergence of neo-racism in Europe; marginalization or exclusion based on race; commonality of racism in certain European countries (i.e. “it is no longer shameful to admit that one is a ‘racist’”); re-emergence of neo-Nazi groups; xenophobia; discrimination against the Roma; racism and racial discrimination against Black people and people of Arab origin, anti-Semitism; xenophobia and discrimination against immigrants and migrant workers; discrimination against women; racism and racial discrimination against children; incitement to racial hatred (“hate speech”).

1995

51st session CHR

E/CN.4/1995/78

This report addresses contemporary manifestations of racism and racial discrimination and incidents based on communications from four Turkish organizations describing numerous racist and xenophobic incidents in Germany, Austria, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, and Switzerland. These incidents involve attacks on asylum-seekers, Turkish individuals, Jewish people, people of African descent, Pakistani individuals, Senegal citizens, refugees, and Brazilian individuals. It then discusses measures taken by the Governments to address these incidents.

1994 49th session GA

A/49/677

This report addresses contemporary manifestations of racism and racial discriminations, incidents brought to the attention of the Special Rapporteur, discussion of causes and vectors of the manifestations, measures taken by Governments to remedy the situations described, and the state of public opinion and initiatives of civil society (particularly NGOs) that help combat racism and promote social harmony. Manifestations discussed include xenophobia and racism flourishing in Europe; immigration becoming more strictly regulated; individualism bordering on egoism in the United States; racism and racial discrimination against Black people and people of Arab origin around the world; anti-Semitism; racial discrimination against women; and discrimination against the Roma. Causes of racism and racial discrimination include the world economic crisis and competition for economic resources; and educational systems and media that transmit racist, xenophobic, and anti-Semitic ideologies.

1994

50th session CHR

E/CN.4/1994/66

This report discusses various concerns of the mandate of the Special Rapporteur, including institutionalized and indirect forms of racial discrimination; developed countries becoming ideal breeding grounds for new forms of racial discrimination; minorities and migrant workers becoming victims of racial discrimination; the impact of racism and racial discrimination by conflicts over economic resources; and the indivisibility and interrelatedness of rights and fundamental freedoms.