Different levels and types of services


Pursuant to Human Rights Council Resolution 27/7 of 2014, the Special Rapporteur on the human rights to safe drinking water and sanitation, Mr. Léo Heller, was mandated to work on identifying challenges and obstacles to the full realization of the rights, as well as protection gaps, good practices and enabling factors.

In October 2015, the Special Rapporteur presented his report on different levels and types of service to the United Nations General Assembly at its 76th session.

On 15 June 2015,the Special Rapporteur held an expert consultation with experts on human rights and water and sanitation from various fields.

This report aims to discuss to what extent different types of water, sanitation and hygiene services, combined with their diverse management models, comply with the human rights to water and sanitation. It takes care to discuss the context in which certain technologies and management options are applied, ultimately aiming to highlight the potential benefits and limitations of each type of service and the resulting concerns for the realization of human rights.

The Special Rapporteur considers that realizing the human rights to water and sanitation depends on a combination of various factors. Particular political-institutional contexts have a significant impact on levels of support provided for water, sanitation and hygiene services and the sustainability of access; physical characteristics (water availability, geological, topographical and territorial aspects) are relevant for identifying the most appropriate technologies; economic context influences the implementation capacity of the local institutions and the economic sustainability of systems.