1/ International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination art. 1(1), Jan. 4, 1969, 660 U.N.T.S. 195 (hereinafter “ICERD”).
3/ ICERD, art 1.4. CERD has further explained the scope of these obligations in its General Recommendation No. 32 on the meaning and scope of special measures in the International Convention on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination, CERD/C/GC/32.
16/ Janene Pieters, “Confusion over burka ban; woman refused at Nijmegen playground”, 5 August 2019, available at
DutchNews.nl, “Going no-where: driver calls police after woman in niqab gets on bus”, 20 August 2019, available at
DutchNews.nl, “Burquas banned in Dutch Government Buildings- what will it mean in practice?”, 1st August 2019, available at
Peter Winterman, “Vier vragen beantwoord over het boerka-verbod”, 31 July 2019, available at
17/ Institute for Multicultural Development, “Dutch Multicultural Society: Facts and Figures”, October 2009, p. 16.
25/ Amicus Brief from the Mandate of the Special Rapporteur on Contemporary Forms of Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance, The Dutch Immigration and Naturalisation Service, 23 October 2018, available at https://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Issues/Racism/SR/Amicus/DutchImmigration_Amicus.pdf
34/ Report of the Working Group of Experts on People of African Descent on its sixteenth session, Addendum, Mission to the Netherlands, paras. 104-109, 20 July 2015, (A/HRC/30/56/Add.1).
36/ CAT/C/NLD/CO/7, CCPR/C/NLD/CO/5; Foreign Policy, “For Venezuelan Refugees, There’s No Safe Haven in Curacao”, available at “https://foreignpolicy.com/2019/01/28/for-venezuelan-refugees-theres-no-safe-haven-in-curacao-asylum-maduro-netherlands-kingdom-nederland/.
See also Amnesty International, “Detained and Deported: Venezuelans denied protection in Curaçao”, available at