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Call for Inputs: Housing discrimination and spatial segregation

Issued by

Special Rapporteur on the right to adequate housing


14 October 2021

presented to

The 76th session of the General Assembly in 2021


Issued by Special Procedures


Adequate housing

Symbol Number



In this report to the General Assembly the expert undertakes a comprehensive analysis of discrimination in relation to housing and makes recommendations for its elimination.


Issued by Special Procedures


Adequate housing

Symbol Number



The report examines how spatial segregation undermines the equal enjoyment of the right to adequate housing and other interrelated human rights.


Background and Objectives

The next thematic reports of the Special Rapporteur, Mr. Balakrishnan Rajagopal, will focus on the issue of racial, religious, caste, gender and other discrimination in relation to the right to adequate housing, including spatial inequalities and segregation in urban or rural-urban environments.

The main objective of the two interlinked reports will be to identify contemporary and historical forms of discrimination and segregation that affect the right to adequate housing, to highlight good practices in the prevention of housing discrimination and segregation and to provide guidance to States on how they can fulfil their human rights obligations in this respect.

Key questions and types of input sought

To inform his reports the Special Rapporteur welcomes contributions from States, local and regional governments, national human rights institutions, civil society organizations, academics, UN agencies and other stakeholders on the following issues:

  • Studies and information concerning barriers to the enjoyment of the right to adequate housing experienced by individuals and groups due to discrimination by public or private actors;
  • Information concerning patterns and practices of segregation including spatial segregation in urban, rural  and peri-urban-rural contexts and the impacts of spatial inequality and segregation on affected communities;
  • Factors, policies, laws and regulations contributing to spatial segregation or housing discrimination;
  • Impact of spatial segregation in accessing in a non-discriminatory manner the right to adequate housing, public services, including electricity and access to digital services, ensuring security of tenure, and other rights, such as the rights to water, sanitation, education, health, work, the right to a safe and clean environment, and the right to equal protection of the security of the person;
  • Tensions between the protection of cultural and minority rights, the rights of Indigenous Peoples, the freedom of choice of residence and the prohibition of discrimination under international human rights law. Suggestions how such tensions can or have been solved in compliance with international human rights law.
  • Policies, laws and measures aimed at preventing discrimination and spatial segregation in relation to the right to adequate housing.  Positive measures that have resulted in a reduction of spatial segregation and housing discrimination.

Download the questionnaire (Word): العربية | English | Français | Español


Consultation with Local and Regional Governments
14 May 2021 at 15:00 CEST

Access to Justice for Housing Discrimination and Spatial Segregation
Consultation with judges, lawyers, human rights institutions and non-discrimination bodies
7 May 2021, 15:00 CEST (Geneva)

Consultation with States, relevant ministries, public institutions and international organizations
30 April 2021, 15:00 CEST (Geneva)

Consultation with CSOs: Housing discrimination and spatial segregation
12 April 2020: 15:00 CET

Treatment of inputs/comments received

All submissions received will be published on OHCHR websites, except where confidentiality is explicitly requested.

Inputs Received
Inputs Received


Local and regional Governments

National Human Rights Institutions and Ombudspersons

Civil Society Organizations

Academia and Lawyers

International Organizations and United Nations Entities