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Thematic reports

A/HRC/52/28: Towards a just transformation: climate crisis and the right to housing – Report of the Special Rapporteur on the right to adequate housing, Balakrishnan Rajagopal


23 December 2022

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Adequate housing


The report highlights that the climate crisis is severely threatening the enjoyment of the right to adequate housing around the world and that housing itself makes a significant contribution to climate change. It calls for a just transition towards rights-compliant, climate-resilient and carbon-neutral housing. The report argues that the costs of such a transition in the housing sector must be shared fairly among and within countries, and among public authorities, taxpayers, homeowners and renters or other affected groups, to ensure that nobody is left behind.

Key recommendations

  • States must ensure that all climate mitigation and adaptation projects comply with the right to adequate housing and do not produce more inequality or result in climate gentrification, “green grabbing”, forced evictions and arbitrary displacement of communities.
  • States should adopt legislation to protect, respect and fulfil the right to adequate housing without discrimination and incorporate the right to adequate housing in national climate action plans, national determined contributions and national adaptations plans;
  • States should step up efforts to improve the energy efficiency of households, such as the adoption of energy efficiency standards; the encouragement of retrofitting; the use of highly efficient and low-emissions;
  • States should invest in the development of new carbon-neutral, climate-resilient social housing that is affordable for all;
  • States should create an international mechanism for obtaining redress and compensation for climate-induced impacts on housing from those most responsible for causing the climate crisis.

Submissions informing the report

Issued By:

Special Rapporteur on adequate housing as a component of the right to an adequate standard of living, and on the right to non-discrimination in this context

Delivered To:

52nd session of the Human Rights Council