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Committee against Torture considers report of Azerbaijan

12 November 2015

12 November 2015

The Committee against Torture concluded this afternoon its consideration of the fourth periodic report of Azerbaijan on its implementation of the provisions of the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment.

Presenting the report, Khalaf Khalafov, Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs, stated that the Government paid special attention to its collaboration with international organizations in the sphere of the prevention of torture. Measures had been implemented on the improvement of the justice system and increasing the effectiveness of oversight over the activities of penitentiary institutions within the realization of the second National Plan of Action on the protection of human rights in Azerbaijan for the period of 2012-2015. The Public Committee carried out monitoring in various penitentiary institutions of the country on a regular basis. An Ombudsman had been appointed as the national preventive mechanism and had carried out 221 visits to places of detention, including 51 unplanned visits, in the first half of 2015. Azerbaijan was, regrettably, unable to completely fulfil its international obligations in the field of human rights in the occupied territories of Nagorno-Karabakh.

In the following discussion, Committee Experts asked about a number of cases of human rights defenders and political figures who were imprisoned and reportedly suffering abuse, including Leyla Yunus, Ilgar Mammadov and Rasul Jafarov. Experts also wanted to know more about the accountability of police officers for the ill-treatment of prisoners and wondered how come no one had been prosecuted for such crimes. Curiously, no evidence had been found in any cases. Other issues raised included material conditions, suicides and tuberculosis in prisons, access to lawyers, hazing in the Armed Forces, independence of the judiciary and the training of judges, independence and functioning of the Ombudsman, the juvenile justice system and the practice of forced marriages. Committee members also asked about the use of audio-video equipment for recording interrogations and corruption in prisons.

Mr. Khalafov, in concluding remarks, said that they had had a fruitful exchange of views on achievements, but also on problems. The reform of the judiciary and other reforms made it possible to have a well-functioning law enforcement system capable of securing public safety.

The delegation of Azerbaijan included representatives of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ministry of Internal Affairs, Ministry of Justice, Ministry of Health, Ministry of Defence, Ministry of National Security, Ministry of Labour and Social Protection, State Statistical Commission, State Committee for Family, Women and Children Affairs, State Border Service, State Migration Service, Office of the Prosecutor General, Presidency of Azerbaijan and the Permanent Mission of Azerbaijan to the United Nations Office at Geneva.

The Committee will next meet in public on Friday, 13 November, at 3 p.m., to continue its consideration of the sixth periodic report of Austria (CAT/C/AUT/6).


The fourth periodic report of Azerbaijan can be read here: CAT/C/AZE.4.

Presentation of the Report

KHALAF KHALAFOV, Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs of Azerbaijan, stated that the Government paid special attention to its collaboration with international organizations in the sphere of the prevention of torture. In April 2015, the Sub-Committee against Torture had visited, in an unhindered manner, numerous places of detention, prisons and investigative isolation units in Azerbaijan. The Working Group on Arbitrary Detention of the Human Rights Council was expected to visit Azerbaijan in May 2016. There was an agreement in place between the Government and the International Committee of the Red Cross so that the latter’s representatives could freely visit places of detention.

Measures had been implemented on improving the justice system and increasing the effectiveness of oversight over the activities of penitentiary institutions within the realization of the second National Plan of Action on the protection of human rights in Azerbaijan for the period of 2012-2015. Steps had been taken to ensure the independence of the justice system. A judicial and legal council, active since 2005, analysed and provided assessment of the activities of judicial organs and viewed the issues of legal responsibility. Within the reporting period, 201 disciplinary proceedings had been launched as regards to judges. The construction of six new penitentiary facilities was currently ongoing. The Public Committee carried out monitoring in various penitentiary institutions of the country on a regular basis. Between 2013 and 2015, the Committee had made more than 230 visits to the penitentiary institutions. In addition, a commission consisting of officials of the Ministry of Justice, Penitentiary Service and members of the Public Committee, was also functioning and was entrusted with the authority of unhindered access to the penitentiary institutions and private meetings with prisoners.

Mr. Khalafov said that the reforms in the sector of public administration and freedom of entrepreneurship were aimed at increasing transparency in the activities of State institutions. In the first nine months of 2015, 146 criminal cases had been submitted to the courts by the General Directorate on the Fight against Corruption. A special State agency had been established with a view to increasing the effectiveness of public service provision through the application of innovative methods. Combatting corruption also constituted one of the priorities of the Chairmanship of Azerbaijan of the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe from May to November 2014. Currently, Azerbaijan was holding the Chairmanship of the International Anti-Corruption Academy. The Government was also continuing complex measures aimed at combatting domestic violence and preventing human trafficking. The third National Plan of Action for Combatting Human Trafficking for 2017-2018 was currently ongoing, and measures were planned for the prevention, protection and rehabilitation of victims of human trafficking. Out of 4,244 criminal acts against women in the first nine months of 2015, 2,187 persons had been held criminally accountable.

An Ombudsman had been appointed as the national preventive mechanism and had carried out 221 visits to places of detention, including 51 unplanned visits, in the first half of 2015. In the same period, the Ombudsman had issued 200 proposals and recommendations on how to improve the legislation, out of which 71 per cent had been accepted. The Government was continuing its consistent efforts aimed at supporting civil society in the country. The establishment of the electronic information system “Personal Electronic Window” ensured the interchange of information between non-governmental organizations and State organs, made available information envisaged by law and rendered other electronic services. Local non-governmental organizations could carry out their activities without State registration.

Azerbaijan was, regrettably, unable to completely fulfil its international obligations in the field of human rights in the occupied territories of Nagorno-Karabakh. There were currently 4,013 persons on the list of missing persons.

Questions by Experts

GEORGE TUGUSHI, Committee Expert and Co-Rapporteur for Azerbaijan, noted that the definition of torture had been amended in Azerbaijan. A law on the rights of individuals kept in detention had been adopted, and a number of visits had taken place to detention facilities, which were all positive developments.

Nonetheless, there were hardly any cases when law enforcement officials had been prosecuted for the crime of ill-treatment. It was indicative of the fundamental problem of accountability in that area.

The previsioned safeguards, such as access to a lawyer, often did not work well in practice. Some detainees did not have access to a lawyer of their choice or could see the lawyer only after initial questioning by the police. Could more information be provided on the cases of two lawyers who had been expelled from the Bar Association?

Access to a doctor was also a matter of concern. Sometimes descriptions of the injuries had been very superficial. Had any progress been made regarding the procedure of access to medical specialists and how did such examinations take place in practice?

The right of the notification of custody also seemed to be often delayed, the Expert noted.

On the involvement of forensic doctors in the investigation of the alleged cases of ill-treatment, no real investigations had been committed even if some injuries had been detected, which was worrisome.

Had Azerbaijan taken any steps on ensuring non-refoulement for those persons whose expulsion would amount to torture? How about asylum seekers and stateless persons?

In some prisons in Azerbaijan, material conditions were acceptable, whereas in others they were far below standard. Were juveniles kept in a separate facility in Baku?

Inter-prisoner violence still remained an issue in the prison system, whereas some prisoners exercised power over others and were known as “commanders”.

The lack of activities and the absence of medical personnel in prisons were also matters of concern.

Had any prison staff ever been brought to justice for the mistreatment of prisoners? Investigations seemed to have been opened in a number of cases, but had led to no charges.

Since 2009, some laws had been adopted to seriously hamper the activities of civil society. The authorities made registration difficult in some cases, and a number of civil society activists had been imprisoned over the source of their funding.

The treatment of human rights defenders was alarming. A number of them had been imprisoned and were serving sentences. Leyla and Arif Yunus, who were suffering from serious health problems, were currently in prison. Ms. Yunus had also reportedly sustained injuries as a result of attacks by other inmates.

Ilgar Mammadov, another human rights activist and opposition politician, had reported sustaining serious injuries as a result of an attack by prison guards. Had that issue been looked into?

Juveniles were reportedly often interrogated without the presence of an adult or their lawyer. They should not be kept in the same detention units with adults, the Expert stressed.

Had any steps been taken by the authorities to ensure that investigations of alleged crimes by police officers were investigated by the prosecutors rather than the Ministry of Internal Affairs?

Were there plans to introduce CCTV surveillance in police stations, and could prosecutors have access to such recordings, the Expert asked.

KENING ZHANG, Committee Expert and Co-Rapporteur for Azerbaijan, asked about the training provided to the police and other security officers in the country.

The number of cases of deaths from tuberculosis in Azeri prisons was worrisome. Did that mean that the disease was still out of control?

The Expert inquired about investigations into the cases of suicides committed by prisoners. Had any prison guards been held accountable for some suspicious cases of suicide?

Could an update be provided on the number of visits to prisons by the Public Committee?

Referring to the reported violations committed by police officers, could more details be provided, given that they were not considered torture or ill-treatment? The results of the investigations always ended up with “no evidence found” – the delegation was asked to elaborate on that.

The issue of disciplinary measures and reparations was also raised by the Expert. Details were sought on any follow-up actions towards the families of victims.

What was being done to ensure the non-repetition of crimes?

Another Expert asked about specific training provided to prison wardens and security officers, in line with the existing manuals.

The Expert also raised the issue of hundreds of allegations and complaints of torture submitted to the public prosecutor, which had all been found to be groundless. Had there really been no ground for any of those complaints? No one had ever been found guilty.

A question was also asked about publishing only a few reports and not all on ad hoc visits to prisons.

Political power could be checked against abuse only by a strong and independent judiciary, another Expert stated. Was the role of the Azeri judiciary merely cosmetic or effective? How independent and impartial was the State party’s judiciary? The judicial system seemed to have a number of endemic flaws. The backlog of cases seemed to be unreasonably heavy. How were judges appointed?

If torture was indeed endemic in a system, the best way to leave it that way was to fill the judicial system with deep and unsurmountable flaws, the Expert commented.

Violence in the Armed Forces was brought up by an Expert, who asked about the charges in the three cases of death. Had there been any cases when a military official had been punished for hazing or other abuse of conscripts?

How was the independence of the Ombudsman as the national preventive mechanism ensured?

How come individuals at their homes were more credible than those incarcerated when it came to reporting crimes of violence against them? The State seemed to prosecute hundreds of cases of domestic violence every year, but no cases of torture or ill-treatment in prisons.

How many police had been trained specifically to protect individuals from ill-treatment when in State custody?

What constituted consent of the parents when it came to early marriage, an Expert asked.

The case of Leyla Yunus was shocking for many reasons, the Expert stressed, not least for the inter-prisoner violence against her. Why had it taken a month to conduct a forensic investigation of inter-prisoner violence? Why had she not been moved to a safer cell if Ms. Yunus had claimed that her cellmates had beaten her?

Was it required for all prisoners to apologize to the President so that they could be released, as was reported in the case of Ilgar Mammadov? He had also been allegedly hurt in the prison. The delegation was requested to provide the necessary details.

It was shocking that even after so many cases reported, no charges had been established in a single case. Not even in a single case had evidence been found, an Expert said. Who had the obligation of collecting evidence, she asked. Was there any strategy in place for fixing the system?

There were concerns over the ways that legislation was practically applied, especially over investigations of cases of torture and ill-treatment, said another Expert.

The Public Committee carried out monitoring in penitentiary institutions, but, in addition, a commission including the Committee’s representatives was functioning. An Expert asked for a clarification on whether the Public Committee had competence on its own or had to act as a part of the commission, which included State officials?

An Expert asked for an example of the Committee’s recommendations which had been accepted and led to improvements in the State party’s criminal system.

In how many cases had there been a recording of bodily injuries, the Expert wanted to know. It was almost impossible that in no cases had enough evidence been found for charges to be raised. The Istanbul Protocol was a very useful tool on how to investigate cases of torture, the Expert said.

The system was not really functioning well, an Expert emphasized, and it had to be changed. A number of euphemisms were used to describe issues which were essentially torture. Tuberculosis was also still very much present in spite of efforts taken.

When would the State party tackle the issue of the juvenile justice system, she asked.

Did the State party contemplate inviting the Special Rapporteur on Torture, Mr. Mendez?

An Expert asked what steps were being taken to inform prisoners of their rights. What was the time-frame for bringing accused persons in front of judges?

The delegation was asked for information on the enforcement of the provision against forced marriages.

An issue of an extraordinary rendition of a Saudi citizen was also brought up by the Expert, who asked for clarification.

More information was asked about public confessions of some persons, who later claimed that they had been tortured. In how many cases of confessions obtained under torture had such cases been dropped?

The absence of a single case of prosecution for torture raised questions on the existence of a functioning system and proper complaint mechanism. It rang an alarm bell.

Replies by the Delegation

The delegation appreciated that many questions were of a conceptual nature.

Azerbaijan had undertaken an obligation to ensure that its legislation was in line with the Convention. In November 2009, during the discussion of the third periodic report, a recommendation had been made on the definition of torture. Since then, Azerbaijan had fully implemented that recommendation. Article 293 of the Criminal Code had been consequently elaborated, establishing torture and cruel treatment as criminally punishable offences. Torture was understood as physical or mental pain imposed on persons to obtain information or a form of punishment.

Regarding the rights and freedoms of persons in detention, any bodily injury or ill-treatment had to be immediately communicated to the prosecutor. Almost all law enforcement agencies had investigative departments, the delegation said, but it was public prosecutors who conducted investigations. Over the past several years, a number of investigative orders on alleged cases of torture had been issued.

Instructions prepared by the General Prosecutor were available in a very broad document and related to the need to carry out effective investigations on any reports of torture. Detainees always had to be informed what crimes they were accused of and all necessary measures needed to be taken to secure their confidential counselling. Timely registration of detention had to be included in the relevant journal. Video cameras were installed in police stations and pre-trial and investigative facilities.

In very serious crimes in Azerbaijan, more than 90 per cent of culprits were found. The existing system of law enforcement agencies allowed to identify those responsible for crimes, which was done without the need to employ torture or cruel punishment.

Cases of the abuse of power did exist, and included examples of illegal detention, but torture was not used even then, the delegation emphasized.

There had been no cases when the support of a legal counsel had not been given to detainees. Medical examinations fell under the authority of other State bodies, not investigative authorities, and were carried out independently.

Reported cases of torture by the police forces were looked into by the Office of the Prosecutor-General. Information related to investigations was thoroughly analysed. Every single report of alleged cases of torture was investigated, and based on such investigations, decisions were taken in line with the State party’s legislation.

The delegation stated that all work done in Azerbaijan was connected to the core documents and national strategies. The question of reforming the judicial system in Azerbaijan had been on the agenda for a number of years now. Elections of judges were open and democratic and had taken place for the first time in 2001. Thanks to such a democratic process, more than 60 per cent of judges in the country had been replaced and were young people. There were currently five courts of appeal, and the overall number of courts had also increased. Throughout the country, in different regions, the judiciary system was present.

In the 10 different regions of the country there were legal clinics providing legal assistance free of charge. All of the reforms had been carried out in close cooperation with the Council of Europe bodies. The body that assessed the work of judges had also been established with European help.

In addition, a number of new, modern buildings for the needs of the judiciary had been constructed, and an electronic court system had also been put in practice. The electronic system gave citizens an opportunity to send their files to courts without going there physically. By visiting the website, citizens could receive information about court proceedings and how they are being implemented. The portal covered the work of all courts in the country.

The process of the election of judges enjoyed full transparency and was described by European partners as fully in line with international practices. Only judges could take a decision on the work of another judge. The judge could use a lawyer if so required. On the question of the salaries of judges, a delegate informed that those salaries had increased 20 times over the years. Only if a judge was moved to another, lower post, could his or her salary decrease.

Representatives of civil society could participate in the discussions on the reform of the judiciary. Particular attention was paid to ensuring the transparency of the judicial court of Azerbaijan, the delegation stressed.

On the juvenile justice system, the delegation stated that guardians, parents and lawyers should obviously be involved in any cases involving minors. Such cases were dealt with by the most experienced judges. Azerbaijan appreciated the help of other countries and international organizations in that regard; more remained to be done.

The delegation stressed that there was certainly no lack of will on the part of Azerbaijan to address cases of torture. When charges were introduced against any individual, it was essential to provide evidence for them. Those accused also had rights which should not be violated. Every allegation of torture which reached the prosecutor’s office, regardless of the source, was registered in a separate log, and was followed by a thorough investigation. After the investigation, a record was written up and the General Prosecutor’s Office regularly verified the situation. Forensic services were provided on time. In some cases, there were discrepancies between the nature of the bodily injuries and the claims by those making claims.

An investigation had been carried out on the bodily injuries of Leyla Yunus, who claimed that she had been subject to blows to her head in the deputy prison warden’s office and earlier beaten up by her inmates. None of the inmates had corroborated her claims. The inmates stated that, while in the cell, prison officials had treated her well and given her more care than others. Video recordings of 23 September 2014 to a degree refuted Ms. Yunus’ claims on the origin of her bodily injuries. Ms. Yunus had refused that an X-ray be taken. Forensic evidence had found no traces of violence on her body.

Tural Shuryi Zeynalov had died of pulmonary embolism because of his deep vein thrombosis, the delegation said. The spots on his skin had been caused by the skin cancer from which he had been suffering. No criminal proceedings had been opened in that case as there had been no proof of him being subjected to torture.

Ilgar Mammadov had been the initiator of mass disorders in a town in the northern region of Azerbaijan, for which he had been charged. Mr. Mammadov had recently made a claim of mistreatment, which was being currently investigated by the prosecutor.

The right to defence was guaranteed to the person from the moment of arrest. A list of lawyers was presented to the arrested person from the moment of his custody.

Regarding suicides in prisons, a number of officers had been held liable for such cases as they had failed to provide for proper oversight. Criminal proceedings could also be taken under the instigation to suicide.

On the questions on the Armed Forces, a delegate reminded that a portion of Azerbaijan had been under Armenian occupation for the previous 23 years, which was why the country paid great importance to the Army. The Armed Forces and their capability depended on the Army’s discipline, and no impunity could be tolerated. Every violation was recorded and thoroughly investigated. Disciplinary or criminal procedures could take place, depending on the gravity of the case.

Cases of violence in the Army did occur, as in any other army in the world. In 2015, close to 200 cases had been reported, for which a number of officers had been held criminally accountable. In the first 10 months of 2015, the military prosecutor had also investigated 67 criminal cases where violence had been committed by superior officers.

Answering the questions on the penitentiary system, the delegation said that the Experts’ comments had not fully reflected the reality. Since 1999, Azerbaijan had implemented two reform programmes related to the penitentiary system, and was closely cooperating with a number of international bodies in that regard with the view of improving the situation in the system. As a result, Azerbaijan today had a modern system for the execution of sentences, positively assessed by its international partners. Material conditions in detention centres had been significantly improved, including the heating system, water supply and medical services. Efforts had been made to fight tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS.

Azerbaijan no longer had problems with overcrowding. All detainees had their own beds. Currently, 5,300 prisoners had paid work. They had access to sports activities and could learn foreign languages. In 2014, more than 300 inmates had received new qualifications. Prisoners could meet and talk to their relatives on a weekly basis. They could spend four hours outside and had access to television. Since 2008, monitoring of prisoners’ correspondence had stopped. Tens of cases of attempted suicide had been prevented in recent years.

The State programme on combatting corruption in prisons was underway. This year there were two cases, and there had been four cases in 2014.

Decisions on solitary confinement could be made only by heads of prisons, and were regularly reviewed. The use of solitary confinement was very rare, the delegation said.

Responding to the question on Ilgar Mammadov, a delegate explained that the procedure of one having to apologize to the President in order to be released simply did not exist.

On injuries and bodily harm, as of 2000, all persons in pre-trial detention cells had to have medical checks. In 2015, there had been 45 cases of injuries, some because of fights between inmates.

Tuberculosis was not born in the prison system, but people arrived at prison with it. Mortality in prisons had decreased over the years, a delegate said. Cancer was the primary cause of death in prisons.

Returning to the issue of the health of Leyla Yunus, a delegate informed that she had systematically refused to be examined by prison doctors, even though she suffered from diabetes. A group of three doctors, including foreign doctors, had visited her a number of times, the last time in October 2015. She had been provided with expensive medication against hepatitis C. There were no indications that anything would threaten her health.

Follow-up Questions by Experts

An Expert reiterated that the lack of complaints and convictions in any country was indicative of the problem with the system of accountability. Even in the most advanced countries, policemen were charged with ill-treatment of detainees. An approach should be changed rather than claiming that everything was perfect. When a forensic doctor was invited to document the injuries, the procedure was often not conducted respecting medical confidentiality.

There were cases when access to a lawyer was delayed, and the risk of ill-treatment was the highest in the first moments after apprehension.

The Expert noted that Leyla Yunus’ husband had been released from prison, which was a welcome development. It was hoped that the case would be the same for Ms. Yunus and other human rights defenders mentioned in the interactive dialogue.

The Expert reiterated his questions about material conditions in prisons number 6 and 14 and the informal hierarchies in Azeri prisons.

Another Expert brought up a question on the training of judges. The issue of the judiciary was raised by an Expert, who asked about its vulnerability with respect to the executive bodies. Independence of the judiciary should be further asserted. The machinery of the judiciary could be “oiled”, but its primary task was to deliver justice.

A question was also asked about the independence of the bar association.

It was critical to provide treatment to the prisoners even if they came in already sick with tuberculosis.

Another Expert stated that when there was abuse of power against persons who should be under the protection of the State, there had to be legal proceedings. Why was that not the case in Azerbaijan?

On the case of Leyla Yunus, another Expert asked why not move her to a safe place, or to take her out of the cell where she had been allegedly maltreated.

The cases of 20 human rights defenders and lawyers unjustly imprisoned had been brought up by non-governmental organizations. Were none of those reports accurate? The Expert was particularly interested in the case of Rasul Jafarov, who had appeared at the Committee against Torture some years earlier.

Were there any guidelines in place on how forensic examinations should be conducted? What was the typical time span between alleged torture and the carrying out of an investigation?

An Expert said that there had been several examples of human rights defenders reportedly committing suicide by jumping out of windows. Windows should be better protected to increase the security of those persons, stressed the Expert.

Replies by the Delegation

Responding to the questions on domestic violence, a delegate said that Azerbaijan had submitted its fifth periodic report to the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women this year; some 809 cases of physical violence against women had been recorded in 2014. The public awareness work had led to results, meaning that the number of cases of violence against both women and children had dropped. Forcing women into marriage could lead to up to two years of imprisonment. In 2014, there had been 479 cases of early marriages, which was a significant decrease compared to previous years. Only 35 per cent of those cases had been punished, which was a sign that certain stereotypes still existed.

On the functioning of the penitentiary system, a delegate informed that the European Court of Human Rights had concluded, based on the documents provided by the Government, that there was no need for releasing Leyla Yunus on health grounds. Today’s decision to release Arif Yunus on health grounds had been brought by an independent court and had nothing to do with the consideration of Azerbaijan by the Committee. Acts of humanness by the State could regularly be seen in Azerbaijan.

There were more than 3,000 non-governmental organizations functioning in Azerbaijan. Those organizations needed to inform the Government of the source of their grants, otherwise those would be subject to taxation; if they failed to pay taxes, the organizations would be held accountable. A non-governmental organization wishing to be registered should simply notify the Ministry of Justice.

Azerbaijan had not been on the list of countries associated with CIA secret prisons and renditions, the delegation informed.

There were 72 holding facilities with video cameras in every section and cell. The video surveillance system was directly connected to the centre in Baku, which compiled a data bank. Those video records could be subsequently used for investigative purposes.

Thanks to the Department of Internal Investigations, hundreds of violations by police officers had been detected, and dozens of police officers had been sentenced to various terms of punishment. Other officers had been expelled from the police, and yet others demoted. The Government was interested in detecting cases of torture and always paid attention to any allegations or information provided by different sources.

Between 2009 and 2014, a centre for victims of human trafficking in Baku had helped 464 people, half of whom had been direct victims of human trafficking. Rehabilitation centres were being created in different regions of the country.

Mechanisms were available to foreigners and stateless persons to state if they had been subjected to torture. Expulsions could not be carried out if there was ground to believe that the expelled person would be in danger of torture in his or her country.

A delegate informed that there were plans to close down one obsolete prison, while a new facility was being constructed in Baku. Solutions would be found for prisons 6 and 14, where renovations were being carried out.

Judges in Azerbaijan were independent, a delegate emphasized.

Concluding Remarks

KHALAF KHALAFOV, Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs, said that the dialogue had shown that cooperation was continuing. There had been a fruitful exchange of views on achievements, but also on problems. The reform of the judiciary and other reforms made it possible to have a well-functioning law enforcement system capable of securing public safety. The Committee’s recommendations would be given due attention. There was an open invitation to Special Rapporteurs, including the one on torture.


For use of the information media; not an official record