GENEVA (27 September 2017) – The United Nations Special Rapporteur on the protection of human rights in the context of countering terrorism, and the Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights defenders are calling on France to honour its international human rights commitments and obligations while debating a new draft law that may perpetuate the emergency measures introduced in 2015, and establish a permanent state of emergency.
“The normalization of emergency powers has grave consequences for the integrity of rights protection in France, both within and beyond the context of counter-terrorism,” the United Nations human rights expert, Fionnuala Ní Aoláin* warned today.
The draft law “to Strengthen Internal Security and the Fight Against Terrorism” (or in French: Projet de loi renforçant la sécurité intérieure et la lutte contre le terrorisme) was approved by the Senate on 18 July 2017. It is scheduled to be debated by the National Assembly from 25 September onward.
In a letter to the French Government on 22 September, Fionnuala Ní Aoláin drew attention to several provisions of the draft law that may adversely impact on the enjoyment of the right to liberty and security, the right to access to court, freedom of movement, freedom of peaceful assembly and association, freedom of expression and freedom of religion or belief. Echoing these concerns, the Special rapporteur on human rights defenders, Michel Forst, reiterated his fear about the impact that the draft law, if adopted, will have on the security and activities of human rights defenders in the country.
“As France is strengthening its fight against terrorism, the draft bill includes a number of security measures, which will incorporate into ordinary law several restrictions on civil liberties currently in place under France’s state of emergency,” Ms. Ní Aoláin noted. She underscored that both regional and international human rights institutions affirm that the means open to the state to regulate terrorism by law are limited by its compliance with international human rights standards. This means that the duration of the state of emergency must be time-bound, revised regularly, and meet the criteria of necessity and proportionality.
The two UN experts expressed concern about the vague wording in certain provisions of the draft Bill, in particular the definitions of terrorism and threats to national security. This heightens, the experts said, concerns that the powers given to the authorities may be used in an arbitrary manner. Also, giving non-judicial officers, specifically prefects and police officers, broad discretion and broadening the scope for control practices, may have intruding and discriminatory repercussions for residents of France, in particular for citizens of Muslim confession. “France is a leading democracy with a deep and abiding commitment to the rule of law and the value of human rights, underlined the two experts. In demonstrating how the management of terrorist threats can be undertaken without imperilling the rule of law and its commitment to the protection of human rights, French leadership has an important national, regional and international role to play.”
Mr. Michel Forst (France) was appointed by the Human Rights Council as the UN
Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights defenders in 2014. Mr. Forst has extensive experience on human rights issues and particularly on the situation of human rights defenders. In particular, he was the Director General of Amnesty International (France) and Secretary General of the first World Summit on Human Rights Defenders in 1998.
The Special Rapporteurs are part of what is known as the
Special Procedures of the Human Rights Council. Special Procedures, the largest body of independent experts in the UN Human Rights system, is the general name of the Council’s independent fact-finding and monitoring mechanisms that address either specific country situations or thematic issues in all parts of the world. Special Procedures’ experts work on a voluntary basis; they are not UN staff and do not receive a salary for their work. They are independent from any government or organization and serve in their individual capacity.