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UN Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination issues findings on Cameroon, Estonia, Kazakhstan and Luxembourg

29 April 2022

GENEVA (29 April 2022) – The UN Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination on Friday issued findings on Cameroon, Estonia, Kazakhstan and Luxembourg after reviewing the States parties in its latest session.

The findings contain positive aspects of each country's implementation of the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, as well as the Committee's main concerns and recommendations. Some of the key highlights include:


The Committee was deeply concerned about the widespread violent attacks and clashes between the security forces and the armed separatist groups in the North-West and South-West regions since 2016. It also expressed grave concern over the terrorist attacks against civilians by non-state armed groups in the Far-North region and inter-ethnic violence in the Logone-et-Chari region. The Committee urged Cameroon to prioritise the process of national reconciliation and transitional justice and to strengthen its efforts to ensure accountability and end impunity.

Concerning the inadequate legislative framework on land ownership, which does not take into account the traditions, customs and land tenure systems of indigenous peoples, the Committee recommended that Cameroon accelerate its legislative review to protect indigenous people’s rights to own, use, develop and control their lands, territories and resources. It also called on the State party to adopt effective measures to ensure consultation with indigenous peoples on any projects that may affect their land and their way of life.


Despite the reduction in the number of people with undetermined citizenship during the period under review, the Committee remained concerned that there were still 7,139 people with unknown nationality in Estonia in 2021.  The Committee recommended that Estonia continue its efforts to identify these people and assist them in accessing citizenship. It also asked the State party to adopt a national plan to end statelessness.

The Committee reiterated its concern over Estonia’s Penal Code, which is not fully compliant with the Convention to prohibit racist organizations and ban disseminating ideas based on racial hatred. It recommended that Estonia amend its legislation to fully comply with the Convention and ensure that punishment for hate speech corresponds to the gravity of the offences.


The Committee was concerned about the existing tensions between ethnic groups and repeated incidents of inter-ethnic violence in Kazakhstan. It recommended that Kazakhstan ensure that local authorities and law enforcement officials are trained to identify and resolve ethnic tensions. It also called on the State party to strengthen the legal and political power of the Assembly of People of Kazakhstan and enable it to be more effective in promoting the peaceful coexistence of ethnic groups and preventing ethnic tensions and conflicts.

Regarding racist hate speech against ethnic minority groups on the Internet and social media, the Committee asked Kazakhstan to increase measures to monitor, investigate and prosecute online racist hate speech. It also asked the authorities to collect and analyse statistics on racist hate speech and include the data in its next periodic report.


The Committee expressed concern that people of African descent in Luxembourg experience significantly higher rates of racism and discrimination in the workplace, housing and education than other population groups. It also observed that the Center for Equal Treatment is not empowered to hear complaints or initiate legal proceedings. The Committee recommended that Luxembourg take measures to facilitate victims' access to justice and to combat racism and all forms of discrimination against people of African descent.

There have been reports of growing racial hate speech against migrants, refugees, asylum seekers and people of African descent on the Internet and social media. The Committee recommended that Luxembourg take necessary measures to prevent and combat hate speech against any racial groups, and ensure that all reported cases of racial hate speech are effectively investigated and prosecuted.

During the session, the Committee welcomed four new members and elected a new bureau. In addition to the country review, the Committee also adopted a statement on the lack of equitable and non-discriminatory access to COVID-19 vaccines, urging all States parties to combat the pandemic through international assistance and cooperation.
The above Concluding Observations of the Committee are now available online on the session webpage.


For more information and media requests in Geneva, please contact:

Vivian Kwok at +41 (0) 22 917 9362 / [email protected] or
UN Human Rights Office Media Section at +41 (0) 22 928 9855 / [email protected]


The Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination monitors States parties’ adherence to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, which, to date has 182 States parties. The Committee is made up of 18 members who are independent human rights experts drawn from around the world, who serve in their personal capacity and not as representatives of States parties.

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