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Mauritania: UN expert encouraged by progress but says more work needed to fully eradicate slavery

13 May 2022

NOUAKCHOTT (13 May 2022) – A UN human rights expert today welcomed progress in strengthening Mauritania’s legal framework and building the political will to combat slavery, but cautioned that much work still lay ahead.

At the end of a 10-day visit to the country, Tomoya Obokata, the UN Special Rapporteur on contemporary forms of slavery, called on the authorities to take urgent measures to step up implementation of Mauritania’s anti-slavery legislation and to address practical, legal, and social obstacles for people affected by slavery to seek justice and achieve equality.

“I am grateful to the Government for welcoming my visit, and for the cooperation extended to my mandate by the highest levels of authorities, including the President of the country,” Obokata said in a statement. “I was encouraged by the President’s acknowledgement during our meeting that denial of slavery is not the right approach, and his stated commitment to ending slavery, bringing perpetrators to justice, and fostering the social and economic inclusion of former enslaved persons.”

“Since the last visit of my mandate in 2014, Mauritania has taken important steps to combat slavery and there is a greater willingness to discuss slavery issues openly,” said Obokata.“The adoption of Law 2015-031 criminalizing slavery and slavery-like practices addressed many of the gaps in Mauritania’s previous anti-slavery legislation. I am also encouraged by efforts undertaken by the Government to raise awareness of the law among legal practitioners, judicial police, security forces, civil society, and the general public.”

Nevertheless, Obokata cautioned that descent-based and contemporary forms of slavery continue to exist in Mauritania, within and among all of the country’s major ethnic groups as well as between certain groups. “Chattel slavery persists in Mauritania, despite denial of the practice in some quarters,” he said.

“Enslaved persons, particularly women and children, are subject to violence and abuse, including sexual violence, and are treated as property. Caste-based slavery is also an issue, with persons from repressed castes who refute their slave status facing violent reprisals and denial of access to basic services by dominant castes.

“Child labour remains a concern, particularly the practice of forced begging, and forced labour practices are common in Mauritania’s informal sector, impacting migrants as well as Mauritanian nationals.”

Obokata observed that full enforcement of Mauritania’s anti-slavery legislation remained elusive, and called for redoubled efforts towards full implementation of the country’s anti-slavery legal framework and address deep-rooted social practices.

“The continued existence of slavery and other slavery-like practices in Mauritania regrettably demonstrates that relevant laws are not enforced in practice and that a social transformation and a change in the mindset of the country’s leaders is needed in order to fully recognize and address slavery instead of denying its existence,” said Obokata.

“Further effort is needed to ensure slavery complaints are investigated and judged within a timely manner, that victims of slavery are made aware of their rights and able to effectively access complaint mechanisms, as well as given protection and assistance, and that penalties are fully applied.”

Obokata also received reports that enslaved persons and their descendants faced challenges enrolling in Mauritania’s civil registry, a prerequisite for access to education, formal employment, and basic services.

“Without access to formal employment and education, victims of slavery and their children have no viable pathways out of slavery, and remain trapped in a vicious circle of dependence on their enslavers or exploitative forms of work,” Obokata said. “It is imperative that the Government address these communities’ obstacles to civil registration.”

During his visit, Obokata met President of the Islamic Republic of Mauritania, His Excellency Mr. Mohamed Ould Cheikh El Ghazouani, and the Prime Minister His Excellency Mr. Mohamed Ould Bilal Messoud, as well as other government officials. He also met with civil society, worker’s associations, the diplomatic community and the UN, as well as human rights defenders, victims of slavery, and migrants. He had meetings in Nouakchott and Nouadhibou.

The Special Rapporteur’s report on the visit will be presented to the Human Rights Council in September 2023.


Mr. Tomoya Obokata was appointed UN Special Rapporteur on contemporary forms of slavery in March 2020. Mr. Obokata is a Japanese scholar of international law and human rights, specialising in transnational organised crime, human trafficking and modern slavery. He currently serves as Professor of International Law and Human Rights at Keele University, and previously taught at Queen's University Belfast and Dundee University (all in the United Kingdom Great Britain and Northern Ireland).

The Special Rapporteurs are part of what is known as the Special Procedures of the Human Rights Council. Special Procedures, the largest body of independent experts in the UN Human Rights system, is the general name of the Council’s independent fact-finding and monitoring mechanisms that address either specific country situations or thematic issues in all parts of the world. Special Procedures’ experts work on a voluntary basis; they are not UN staff and do not receive a salary for their work. They are independent from any government or organization and serve in their individual capacity.

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