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Experts of the Committee against Torture Commend Somalia on Progress in Rebuilding State and Government Institutions, Raise Questions on the Definition of Torture and the Death Penalty
09 November 2022
The Committee against Torture this afternoon concluded its consideration of the initial report of Somalia on its efforts to implement the provisions of the Convention against Torture, with Experts commending the State for progress made in rebuilding its State and Government institutions following years of armed conflict and political instability, and asking about the definition of torture and the use of the death penalty in Somalia.
Liu Huawen, Committee Expert and Co-Rapporteur for Somalia, said although Somalia had experienced years of armed conflict and political instability, in recent years, the country had made significant progress in rebuilding its State and Government institutions. Progress had been made in the Constitutional review process and the construction of the legislative, judicial, and administrative systems.
Mr. Huawen said Somalia had not yet reformed its 1964 Penal Code, and in the absence of specific legislation, judicial authorities did not punish acts that could amount to torture. Could the State party provide information on the review of the Penal Code and specific programmes to add torture to the Code? Had new, progressive pieces of legislation consistent with the Convention been developed? Could details of the punishment provisions for torture be provided?
Naoko Maeda, Committee Expert and Co-Rapporteur for Somalia, asked if the State party intended to establish an official moratorium on the death penalty? What crimes were punishable by death and was the death penalty mandatory? A Committee Expert noted that executions were often carried out publicly in Somalia, which was inhumane and degrading. Could information be provided about initiatives in this regard? Another Expert asked how often persons under the age of 18 were sentenced to death and executed? How many persons were currently on death row?
Isak Hashi Jimale, Director-General at the Ministry of Women and Human Rights Development of Somalia and head of the delegation, said Somalia was committed to the rule of law and human rights. Somalia’s Penal Code currently did not include a definition of torture. However, a comprehensive review of the Penal Code would be finalised in 2023 and would include several revisions, including a definition of torture that was consistent with the Convention.
The delegation said Somalia had not executed any minors under the age of 18. The Government was discussing implementing a moratorium on the death penalty. It was agreed that executions should not be conducted publicly, and Somalia would look to change this in the future. Death row inmates were informed of their execution in advance. There were no political executions in Somalia; the exact crimes which received the death penalty depended on many factors.
In concluding remarks, Mr. Jimale said Somalia was gradually implementing a statistical infrastructure, and understood that reliable data was key for the promotion and protection of human rights in the country. It was hoped that Somalia’s data collection capabilities would improve in the coming years.
Claude Heller, Committee Chairperson, said the dialogue aimed to be constructive and beneficial to both parties. He wished the delegation safe travels back to Somalia.
The delegation of Somalia consisted of representatives of the Ministry of Women and Human Rights Development; the Ministry of Internal Security; the Ministry of Defence; and the Permanent Mission of Somalia to the United Nations Office at Geneva.
Summaries of the public meetings of the Committee can be found here, while webcasts of the public meetings can be found here. The programme of work of the Committee’s seventy-fifth session and other documents related to the session can be found here.
The Committee will next meet in public on Thursday, 10 November at 3 p.m. to conclude its review of the second periodic report of Uganda (CAT/C/UGA/2).
The Committee has before it the initial report of Somalia (CAT/C/SOM/1)
Presentation of Report
ISAK HASHI JIMALE, Director-General at the Ministry of Women and Human Rights Development of Somalia and head of the delegation, said Somalia emphasised its commitment to international human rights mechanisms, including the Convention against Torture. It was committed to the rule of law and human rights. Somalia’s Penal Code currently did not include a definition of torture. However, a comprehensive review of the Penal Code would be finalised in 2023 and would include several revisions, including a definition of torture that was consistent with the Convention. New progressive pieces of legislation were also being developed, including the sexual offences bill. The new legislation defined torture as any act of unlawfully inflicting severe mental, emotional or physical pain or suffering on a person as a means of intimidation, control, coercion, or punishment for any reason, based on discrimination of any kind. The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic had caused delay and created unexpected challenges for the promotion and protection of human rights in Somalia.
Somalia had been working hard to improve the human rights situation of detainees and enhance the conditions. It was putting in place mechanisms to improve the judicial oversight of detention centres. The Government was also strengthening dialogue with federal states to ensure that addressing the situation of prisoners and those held in custody for questioning was done in a coordinated manner so that the rights of detainees were upheld across Somalia. Somalia was committed to ensure that all Government security staff were well trained in human rights and respected the fundamental rights of detainees. Unfortunately, due to Somalia’s young Government, there were no up-to-date statistics available on complaints, investigations, or prosecutions relating to harmful traditional practices, or on assistance provided to victims. However, Somalia was working with different Government institutions to gather this data and information, with the tentative plan to create an up-to-date system that would be ready in a few years’ time.
The establishment of the National Human Rights Commission was ongoing. A Committee had been appointed to propose the way forward to ensure the Commission was established in the coming months. The Commission would be tasked with providing advice on human rights’ issues to the Government. Mr. Jimale said Somalia looked forward to engaging with the Committee regarding Somalia’s work on protecting human rights in the country.
Questions by Committee Experts
LIU HUAWEN, Committee Expert and Co-Rapporteur for Somalia, said although Somalia had experienced years of armed conflict and political instability, in recent years, the country had made significant progress in rebuilding its State and Government institutions. Progress had been made in the Constitutional review process and the construction of the legislative, judicial, and administrative systems. According to reports, Somalia had not yet reformed its 1964 Penal Code, and in the absence of specific legislation, judicial authorities did not punish acts that could amount to torture. Could the State party provide information on the review of the Penal Code and specific programmes to add torture to the Code? Had new, progressive pieces of legislation consistent with the Convention been developed? Could details of the punishment provisions for torture be provided?
How was Islamic Sharia law compatible with the national Constitution and other laws concerning the prohibition of torture?
Had the State party tried to establish a national human rights institution with a broad mandate in compliance with the Paris Principles, as per the recommendations of the Universal Periodic Review in May 2021? Was Somalia considering the ratification of the Optional Protocol to the Convention? Did the Human Rights Commission and the Ministry of Women and Human Rights Development encourage civil society members to participate in the fight against torture?
Allegations had been received about the disregard of fundamental legal safeguards by federal government forces, particularly the National Intelligence and Security Agency, including detention for prolonged periods and mistreatment during interrogations. What was the "reasonable time" from detention to trial? Were there measures to guarantee detainees the right to access a lawyer; to receive an examination by an independent physician; and to notify a relative of their arrest? Were there remedies if the rights of detainees were violated? What was the threat of corruption upon the prohibition of torture and how did the federal states fight corruption in judicial and law enforcement processes?
Mr. Liu noted there were no centralised detention and prison registers in Somalia.
The Committee favourably noted information provided on the case management system and was happy to learn that the implementation of the programme had seen positive results. Could the Committee be updated on the effectiveness and implementation of the case management system? What actions had the State party taken to address the shortage of judges and court administrators? What measures were in place to increase the efficiency of the judicial system across Somalia?
It was reported that the prisons in Jubaland were the worst in Somalia, as they were designated to host mainly those who had been arbitrarily arrested. What were the measures taken to reduce prison overcrowding and to improve the conditions of detention, health-care provision, water, and bedding in prisons? What measures were taken to ensure that men were separated from women and adults from minors in all places of detention? What steps were taken to meet the needs of persons with disabilities in detention? What measures were taken to address inter-prison violence, the spread of HIV infection, and access to illegal drugs in prison? In the face of drought and famine, could Somalia secure food supplies for people deprived of their liberty?
The Committee was concerned about reports on the use of unlawful detention centres. What legal safeguards were in place to prevent arbitrary and warrantless arrests? What oversight mechanisms were in place to ensure that detention centres, including those in Somaliland, were kept sanitary and in conformance with international norms? What steps had the State party taken to end the use of unofficial detention centres?
In Somalia, military courts had the power to try civilians, especially in terrorism related cases. It was reported that civilian courts were not functional in many areas of Somalia. Could statistics be provided on the cases of civilians tried by military courts in recent years, and what were the “special” circumstances for choosing military courts? Did Somalia have any specific implementation plans and programmes for transferring such cases to civilian courts?
The locals in the areas of Leego had accused Danab forces of abducting and torturing hundreds of young men in the period between 2018 and 2022, under the pretext of fighting al Shabab terrorists. There were also reports of secret prisons run by the National Intelligence and Security Agency in the context of counterterrorism, and allegations of the use of torture in those detention facilities and also by the Somali National Army’s Special Forces. Could these allegations be clarified? Could the delegation provide detailed information on the measures adopted by the Government to curb the violence from terror groups, as well as the parliamentary process and key provisions of the national counter terrorism bill? Could the Committee be informed of the current terrorist threat to Somalia and the need for help from the international community?
The Committee favourably noted the State party’s response providing information on the establishment of a national action plan on ending sexual violence in conflict. However, according to United Nations sources, there had been an alarming 80 per cent increase in sexual violence in Somalia. In 2020, nearly 400 civilians, primarily young women and girls, were victims of rape or sexual violence. In 2021, there were more than 100 cases of sexual violence against women and girls in the first quarter of the year alone. How had Somalia implemented the action plan, cracked down on gender-based violence, and protected women's rights? What support services were available to victims? What efforts had been taken to strengthen the legal system against gender-based violence?
Somalia had one of the highest rates of female genital mutilation in the world, with well over 90 per cent of girls and women having been subjected to some form of the practice. In the first quarter of 2022 alone, more than 12,000 girls underwent female genital mutilation in Somalia. Had the female genital mutilation act been passed and had it entered into force? Had female genital mutilation been established as a criminal offence, and what was the criminal responsibility? Could information on judicial cases concerning female genital mutilation be provided? What measures were in place to protect and support victims of the practice? Could disaggregated data on victims of female genital mutilation be provided? What measures had the State party taken to strengthen its efforts to combat harmful traditional practices, such as early and/or forced marriage?
The Committee remained concerned about insufficient governmental and judicial efforts to investigate, penalise and prevent human trafficking. Reports indicated that children were trafficked into sex trafficking, military support roles, direct combat, and marriage to al-Shabab militants. Could disaggregated data be provided on investigations, prosecutions, and convictions related to trafficking. Were administrative, legal, or judicial efforts being undertaken to prevent and fight trafficking? What services were available to victims? What steps were being taken to protect children?
The Committee welcomed that Somalia had ratified the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities in 2019. What was the status of the National Disability Agency, including its work content, staff composition, and the Government's budget for its funding? Were there administrative regulations and monitoring mechanisms for institutions for the disabled, mental health institutions, and rehabilitation centres？
It was deeply concerning that corporal punishment was widely accepted in Somalia and not prohibited in the home, alternative care settings, day care and schools, and in penal institutions as a sentence for crime. It was also concerning that the Penal Code punished assault except when the perpetrator was the parent. What progress was being made on ensuring that legislation prohibited corporal punishment of children in all settings, including in the home, and served as the criminal rule against a crime? Had the campaign to raise awareness on the protections guaranteed to children been effective? What efforts had been made to ensure oversight and improvement of the human rights situation in Somaliland?
NAOKO MAEDA, Committee Expert and Co-Rapporteur for Somalia, said the United Nations estimated that 2.8 million Somalis had been displaced due to conflict, insecurity and climate change. The Committee commended the State’s consultations on the draft national policy on refugee-returnees and internally displaced persons. What was the status of this draft national policy? Could statistics on internally displaced persons in Somalia, disaggregated by age, sex, and current location, be provided? What resources were offered at each camp for internally displaced persons? To what extent did the State party cooperate with civil society to improve the situation in the camps in terms of human and budgetary resources? What steps were being taken by the State party to ensure security for internally displaced persons?
The establishment of the National Commission for Refugees and Internally Displaced Persons was positive and welcomed. What was the mandate of the Commission? How many refugees had applied for asylum, and been granted asylum or citizenship? The Committee positively noted that the State party had enshrined the principle of non-refoulement into the Constitution, stipulating that every person had the right not to be returned to any country in which that person had a well-founded fear of persecution. What was the concrete domestic legal framework to enshrine the principle of non-refoulement? What procedure was followed when a person invoked that right?
Regarding universal jurisdiction, did the State party plan to address this more clearly in the revision of the Penal Code? Were acts of torture considered an extraditable crime? Had Somalia ratified any extradition agreements with States? Could information on extradition cases undertaken be provided? Had there been any developments on the ratification of mutual judicial assistance treaties since the 1985 Riyadh Agreement? Were training programmes for judges and attorneys carried out in line with the Istanbul Protocol? Could more information on the training for judges and attorneys be provided and how they were educated on the prohibition of torture? How effective were these programmes?
The Federal Government had not yet abolished the death penalty or declared a moratorium on executions. Did the State party intend to establish an official moratorium on the death penalty? Could it describe the measures taken towards abolishing the death penalty and the current obstacles to such an abolition? What crimes were punishable by death and was the death penalty mandatory?
The Committee commended that the State arranged regular visits to prisons and detention facilities and conducted interviews with prisoners. Could disaggregated data on these visits be provided? How often were these visits conducted? Why were these visits conducted by the Attorney General’s office and not independent parties? Could information be provided on the frequency of inter-prisoner violence, including cases involving negligence by law enforcement personnel? Could statistical data on deaths in custody be provided? How were these deaths investigated and were there measures to prevent this from occurring in the future? What were the conditions needed for the Police Oversight Committee to commence and operate investigations on torture cases?
It was commendable that the Serendi Rehabilitation Centre, which was established in 2012, supported the reintegration of ‘low-risk’ former members of terrorist group Al-Shabab into the community. How many persons had received this rehabilitation and achieved re-integration to societies? Were the human and budgetary resources enough for management of the Centre? The Committee remained deeply concerned about the frequent impunity granted to police and military officials who committed abuses. Could the delegation provide information on legal frameworks on investigations, disciplinary and criminal proceedings, and the types of convictions or disciplinary punishments applied?
The Committee was concerned about the continued excessive use of force by the police against civilians; what was the legal standard applied in the State for appropriate use of force and firearms by law enforcement officials? Could more information on the status of a National Truth and Reconciliation Commission be provided? How were members nominated and appointed? Could information be provided on legal frameworks on redress and compensation measures provided to victims of torture or their families? How many requests for compensation had been made and granted? Were victims able to access independent legal aid?
The Committee welcomed the inclusion of the inadmissibility of evidence obtained through torture in the Criminal Procedure Code. What criteria were used to consider that a confession was made voluntarily or involuntarily? Did judges undertake any training programmes regarding the evaluation of confessions? How often had pre-recorded confessions been used as a basis for conviction or as prime evidence in a hearing? What procedures and safeguards were in place for defendants who claimed their confessions were obtained by torture? Were there specific measures to combat the use of torture or other coercive measures to obtain confessions in any proceedings?
A Committee Expert noted that executions were often carried out publicly in Somalia which was inhumane and degrading. Could information be provided about initiatives in this regard? Had there been any public executions in the last year?
Another Committee Expert asked how often persons under the age of 18 were sentenced to death and executed? How many persons were currently on death row? Were capital offences confined to the Penal Code?
One Committee Expert asked for clarification about the word “unlawfully” in the definition of torture; why was this word in there and was it consistent with the Convention?
Responses by the Delegation
The delegation said the Government was reviewing the Penal Code and would define torture in line with the definition outlined in the Convention. Somalia had updated legislation, including the juvenile justice bill, with provisions relating to torture. A strong mechanism had been established to protect human rights, which focused on the elimination of all forms of torture. A project had been created, which aimed to reduce the punishment of children in the home, encourage positive parenting, and improve the quality of parenting. This project would assist in preventing all forms of torture in the country. The Government had ongoing plans to protect detainees and was working with international partners, including the Red Cross. A project had been developed, which focused on providing medical aid, access to justice and the safeguarding of rights to detainees.
Regarding gender-based violence, a strategy had been developed, which included prevention and mitigation responses, as well as outlines for psycho-social support, mental health support, and access to justice. It also included a comprehensive plan of action, which addressed the needs and priorities identified by the community. With the support of the United Nations Children’s Fund, the social work programme was rolled out in universities across the country, with the provisional social workers to take responsibility for the implementation of the strategy.
The National Commission for Refugees and Internally Displaced Persons in Somalia was created in 1973 and had clear policies and responsibilities coordinating all measures necessary for protecting all persons of concern in Somalia. The Commission helped asylum seekers and returnees, stateless persons, and vulnerable women and children. The delegation said all detainees enjoyed legal safeguards from the outset of their arrest, including access to a lawyer, an independent medical examination by a professional, and the right to notify a relative regarding their arrest. Several training sessions had been conducted for legal professionals, including on instances of torture and ill-treatment. Men and women were detained separately in prisons and places of detention. The State was anticipating massive defectors from al Shabab, and a rehabilitation centre would be opened to receive children under the age of 18 who had left the group.
The delegation said Somalia had initiated the process of the National Human Rights Commission a few years ago, with the first stage concluded in 2017. There had been a delay in approving the preliminary list of candidates, which had come through a transparent process that met the criteria of the Paris Principles. Somalia had welcomed a new Government in May this year, which was committed to ensuring the establishment of the Commission before mid-2023. A Committee had been appointed to accelerate the process, which would develop a list of names for the Commission to be approved by parliament. Ideally the Commission would be established within a year, which would be the first time Somalia had a national human rights institution in line with the Paris Principles.
There were no immediate plans to ratify the Optional Protocol to the Convention. A dialogue would be held to determine the opportune moment to ratify the Optional Protocol, as well as other international treaties to which Somalia was not yet party to. Somalia was emerging from a difficult situation, and a lot of institutions were young and developing. The Somali National Institution of Statistics had been in place for around three years and was constantly improving and conducting data research in different areas. Although a lot of statistics were not currently available, the process was ongoing and Somalia was constantly improving in this context.
The delegation said Somalia had ratified the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, and had established the National Disability Agency, which was working to implement the national disability law. The law provided significant protection to persons with disabilities. It was hoped that Somalia would be able to tackle critical issues regarding persons with disabilities as the capacity of the agency improved; however, the State was not there yet.
Somalia paid high attention to children deprived of their liberty and was reforming institutions for children. It would be useful for Somalia and other countries if the Committee on the Rights of the Child and the Committee against Torture adopted a joint general comment regarding the protection of children in different institutions. Somalia was incorporating activities aimed at abolishing all forms of corporal punishment in the national plan of action. The framework had been developed and the final draft of the plan was now ready. The plan focused on access to justice, training of the judiciary, and data collection, among other factors. There were numerous barriers to protecting children against corporal punishment, including traditional cultural beliefs. There was a political will to move towards the complete prohibition of corporal punishment.
The national plan of action for children was an integral part of a broader approach toward a human rights agenda in Somalia, and would address all forms of torture which applied to children. Somalia was planning to develop a platform for monitoring the implementation of recommendations by the Committee on the Rights of the Child, and the same would be done for the Convention against Torture’s recommendations. There were some remaining treaty bodies which Somalia was willing to ratify, and this was under discussion.
The Office of the Prime Minister had developed strategies to respond to human trafficking. Somalia worked with United Nations partners to provide assistance to victims and worked closely with regional authorities to address human trafficking in the country. Somalia had developed several laws to strengthen the promotion and protection of human rights over the past 10 years. The laws Somalia had been working on included draft legislation on sexual offences, including the anti-female genital mutilation bill. All these bills would domesticate the Convention into Somalia’s legislation. Somalia was committed to putting in place protective measures to ensure the full enforcement of the legislation. The comprehensive review of the Penal Code would result in a significantly enhanced Penal Code, which would include elements which were currently missing in Somalian legislation.
Questions by Committee Experts
LIU HUAWEN, Committee Expert and Co-Rapporteur for Somalia, said the State report and the replies by the delegation were “under construction”, discussing things which had not happened yet, such as laws being drafted. Political will was very important, and this needed to be shown through actions and measures. Mr. Liu had learnt a wise theme from Somalia “one finger cannot wash the whole face”. One actor was not enough; there needed to be joint efforts and systematic approaches. Somalia was facing so many challenges, but the rule of law could help to maintain the solidarity and connect different actors.
The attitudes towards human trafficking were promising, but the law needed to be reviewed in order to combat the modern nuances of trafficking. For each list of the concerns outlined, the Committee wanted to know the current status, if there were laws in place to combat these, and whether it was possible for the victims to report crimes and receive assistance from the police. Structural reform was needed, as there were so many different departments within Somalia. There was a need to streamline processes and standards. What laws had been passed and were effective now? Which ones were going to be passed in the next two years?
NAOKO MAEDA, Committee Expert and Co-Rapporteur for Somalia, said the Committee appreciated Somalia joining the meeting under complicated circumstances. There were many questions which had not been addressed, so the Committee would like the delegation’s input on the more concrete information, regarding the framework and infrastructure. Could the delegation provide statistics on how many internally displaced persons had been evicted from camps and how those persons had been informed of their rights? Was training available to border guards and security personnel at camps for internally displaced persons? There needed to be more information provided on Somalia’s legal framework. Ms. Maeda asked for more information on extradition, as the issue was ambiguous and contradictory. Had there been any agreements with States since the submission of the report? What was the basis to conduct extraditions?
The death penalty was a big issue; information had been received from civil society which stated that at least a dozen executions were carried out in 2019. There were also concerns that executions were carried out publicly and in public spaces; could this be clarified? What kind of crimes could receive the death penalty and were they strictly limited to serious crimes? Information had been received that people could receive the death penalty for crimes of a political nature. What measures had been taken to reduce prison overcrowding in Somalia? What alternatives to imprisonment were being considered? What was being done to improve conditions in prison, including health care? The Committee remained concerned over the lack of protection for journalists and human rights defenders, and noted there were many cases of arbitrary detention and arrest. Could a status of these cases be provided? Had investigations been conducted, and those who were responsible prosecuted?
CLAUDE HELLER, Committee Chairperson, said he agreed with what both rapporteurs had said about the lack of replies; many issues had been raised which had gone unanswered. It was very much appreciated that Somalia had taken the trouble to come to Geneva bearing in mind the complicated situation in the country. The delegation should use this opportunity for dialogue and to make requests for assistance from the international community. What did Somalia believe were the main obstacles to implementing the Convention? What were the State’s priorities, and what was preventing the State from reaching its goals?
A Committee Expert said no responses had been received regarding questions on the death penalty, including the number of persons executed, those on death row, and minors who had received the death penalty.
Responses by the Delegation
The delegation said there were mechanisms in place to monitor human trafficking cases and prevent them from occurring. There were awareness raising campaigns being conducted to inform the public on this issue, however, statistics were currently not available. Somalia did not forcibly detain refugees or asylum seekers. A bilateral agreement had been signed with India regarding the extradition of pirates. Apart from this, Somalia had not signed a bilateral agreement with any State and did not plan to do so in the future.
Somalia had not executed any minors under the age of 18. The Government was discussing implementing a moratorium on the death penalty. It was agreed that executions should not be conducted publicly, and Somalia would look to change this in the future. Death row inmates were informed of their execution in advance. There were no political executions in Somalia; the exact crimes which received the death penalty depended on many factors. It was noted that many questions had been asked regarding statistics, but right now the delegation did not have these available.
Questions by Committee Experts
LIU HUAWEN, Committee Expert and Co-Rapporteur for Somalia, said there were high expectations for Somalia’s Human Rights Commission. It was progress that the new Ministry of Women and the Human Rights Development had been created. For the realisation of human rights, legal reform was always necessary. The coming years were a big opportunity. There needed to be a sound definition of torture and human trafficking, and for other crimes concerning torture and ill-treatment. There was a need to pay more attention to the victims and to help them reintegrate into normal lives. Many women prostitutes were survivors of human trafficking; they should not be treated as criminals, but rather survivors of crimes. This could be addressed in the legal reform. The law should be used to unite the country legally and morally. It would be appreciated if the delegation could respond to questions in writing.
NAOKO MAEDA, Committee Expert and Co-Rapporteur for Somalia, thanked the delegation for their positive attitude. The Committee would take note of the responses, despite limited areas. The purpose of the dialogue was to shed light on Somalia’s achievements and their future challenges, and the Committee looked forward to continuing dialogue with Somalia in the future.
Responses by the Delegation
The delegation said a report would be given to the Committee from civil society, and asked if it could be shared with the delegation. Human trafficking had been an issue for the last 10 years. Could the Committee share the questions with the delegation so they could use the experts in Somalia to provide the proper answers?
ISAK HASHI JIMALE, Director-General at the Ministry of Women and Human Rights Development of Somalia and head of the delegation, said Somalia was grateful to hear the thoughts and views of Committee members and looked forward to implementing the Committee’s recommendations. Somalia was gradually implementing a statistical infrastructure, and understood that reliable data was key for the promotion and protection of human rights in the country. It was hoped that Somalia’s data collection capabilities would improve in the coming years.
CLAUDE HELLER, Committee Chairperson, said the dialogue aimed to be constructive and beneficial to both parties. He wished the delegation safe travels back to Somalia.
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