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Mali: Transitional authorities must protect civic space, respect freedom of expression and association says UN expert

20 February 2023

GENEVA (20 February 2023) – A UN expert today urged authorities in Mali to open up civic and democratic space and redouble efforts to fight impunity for human rights violations and abuses as the country embarks on an electoral process.

"I welcome the progress made in the process of democratic transition and the slight decline in documented human rights violations and abuses in the last quarter of 2022,” said Alioune Tine, the UN independent expert on the human rights situation in Mali in a statement issued at the end of a ten-day visit to the country.

“As the country embarks on an electoral process, a debate of ideas on programmes and policies must be encouraged,” Tine said.

The expert said he had faced difficulties during his visit to Mali.

"My mission took place in a tense context, marked by the continued shrinking of civic space, attacks on human rights defenders and civil society by state and non-state actors,” he said. 

Tine’s arrival in Mali on 5 February coincided with the decision by Malian authorities the same day to declare the Director of the Human Rights Division of the UN Peacekeeping Mission in Mali (MINUSMA) "persona non grata”. “For the first time, upon our arrival at the Bamako airport, my assistant and I were subjected to stop and questioning by police officers. Later, I protested to the authorities who expressed their regrets. Unfortunately, this heavy and unhealthy atmosphere is maintained by a group of individuals and non-state organisations who threaten and discredit civil society and international institutions and overshadow progress made by Mali," he warned.

"I am extremely concerned about the shrinking of civic space, freedom of expression and association, and the worsening of self-censorship, as illustrated by the attacks on human rights defenders denounced by several actors, including the National Human Rights Commission of Mali. I myself was the subject of verbal attacks on social networks before and during my visit,” the UN expert said.

Tine said human rights defenders, journalists, and other media professionals mentioned taboo subjects that they no longer dared to discuss for fear of reprisals by Malian transitional authorities and their supporters, particularly on social media.

The UN expert said human rights violations and abuses documented by MINUSMA in the final quarter of 2022 showed a 7.46% decrease. Tine commended the 1 February 2023 adoption of a draft text on the creation of a national human rights directorate and efforts underway to prosecute around 100 persons involved in human rights abuses related to descent-based slavery.

"Mali must consolidate these gains and complete judicial investigations to bring to justice all perpetrators of serious violations of human rights and international humanitarian law and abuses, including members of non-state armed groups, militias, and members of the Defence and Security Forces.

He highlighted serious human rights abuses that continue to be committed by violent extremist groups, including murders, kidnappings, threats against civilians, looting of livestock, and rape of women and girls.

Tine said he received reports during his visit that Russian military and security personnel (referred to as "Wagner") participated in military operations, terrorised villagers, executed civilians, stole people's property including livestock and jewellery, and raped women and girls. “Malian authorities emphasised that Russian military and security personnel in Mali were military instructors deployed to train Malian Security Forces in using military equipment procured from the Russian Federation. However, the authorities undertook to investigate these alleged violations involving Russian military and security personnel,” Tine said.

“However, I would like to emphasise, as I have in previous reports, that credible sources have shared information with me that Russian military and security personnel are indeed participating in combat operations and committing serious human rights violations and abuses,” the expert said.

During his visit, Tine met with Malian authorities, civil society and victims' associations, non-governmental organizations, media professionals, political parties, diplomats, the African Union and the United Nations. Tine will present his annual report to the Human Rights Council in March 2023.


Mr. Alioune Tine (Senegal) took office as independent expert on the human rights situation in Mali on 1 May 2018. The mandate of independent expert was renewed by the Human Rights Council on 1 April 2022 for a period of one year to assist the Government of Mali in its actions to promote and protect human rights and in the implementation of the recommendations made in Council resolutions. Mr. Tine was a founding member and President of the African Meeting for the Defense of Human Rights (RADDHO) and Coordinator of the Forum of African NGOs at the World Conference against Racism in 2000. Between 2014 and 2018, Mr. Tine was Amnesty International's Regional Director for West and Central Africa. He has published many articles and studies on literature and human rights.

The independent experts are part of what is known as the Special Procedures of the Human Rights Council. Special Procedures, the largest body of independent experts in the UN Human Rights system, is the general name of the Council's independent fact-finding and monitoring mechanisms that address either specific country situations or thematic issues in all parts of the world. Special Procedures experts work on a voluntary basis; they are not UN staff and do not receive a salary for their work. They are independent from any government or organization and serve in their individual capacity.

UN human rights country page - Mali

For additional information and media inquiries, please contact: Jean-Claude Misenga (+41 22 917 9059 / [email protected] ).

In Bamako (during the visit): Anne-Marie Dongui (+223 95940624/  [email protected] ).

For media enquiries regarding other UN independent experts, please contact Maya Derouaz ([email protected]) or Dharisha Indraguptha ([email protected])

Follow news related to the UN’s independent human rights experts on Twitter: @UN_SPExperts.

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