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Special Rapporteur on the sale and sexual exploitation of children
In 1990, international awareness about the commercial sexual exploitation and the sale of children led to the appointment of a United Nations Special Rapporteur on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography through resolution 1990/68 of the United Nations Commission on Human Rights. It mandated the Special Rapporteur to investigate the exploitation of children around the world and to submit reports to the General Assembly and the Commission on Human Rights, making recommendations for the protection of the rights of the children concerned.
The mandate on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography has been regularly renewed since then. It is the only mandate of the UN Special procedures system with an exclusive focus on children.
In its resolution 7/13, the Human Rights Council mandated the Special Rapporteur, in particular through visits and exchange of communications with Governments, to:
In its resolution 34/16, the Human Rights Council welcomed the work and contribution of the Special Rapporteur on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography, and extended the mandate, in accordance with its resolution 7/13, for a period of three years. Also at that time, the mandate was renamed: Special Rapporteur on the sale and sexual exploitation of children, including child prostitution, child pornography and other child sexual abuse material. In 2020, in its resolution 43/22, the Human Rights Council renewed the mandate of the Special Rapporteur for a further period of three years, in accordance with Human Rights Council resolutions 7/13, 34/16 and 52/26.
The mandate on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography is also guided by the Convention on the Rights of the Child, which was adopted on 20 November 1989, and the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography, which was adopted on May 25 2000. The Convention has been ratified by 196 States and the Optional Protocol by 176 states.
The mandate primarily examines issues, trends and effects relating to the sexual exploitation of children online; sexual exploitation of children in travel and tourism, including in the context of major sports events; child prostitution, child pornography and child trafficking for sale and sexual exploitation; and sale of children for the purpose of illegal adoption, transfer of organs, child marriage and forced labour. The recommendations of the Special Rapporteur are targeted primarily at Governments, United Nations bodies, the business sector and non-governmental organizations.
The following tools are available to help children understand the work of the mandate and how to connect with the Special Rapporteur: