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National Preventive Mechanisms

Subcommittee on Prevention of Torture

The Optional Protocol to the United Nations Convention against Torture (OPCAT) is the international instrument establishing the Subcommittee on Prevention of Torture and entrusting national bodies – the National Preventive Mechanisms (NPMs) – with a role in the implementation of the Convention, as monitoring bodies.

NPMs have the mandate to regularly visit places of deprivation of liberty in their country, such as police stations, prisons and other detention facilities, psychiatric hospitals, and any other places where persons are not permitted to leave at their own will. NPMs also have the mandate to make recommendations to national authorities to work with them on the prevention of torture and ill-treatment and on the improvement of conditions of living in places of deprivation of liberty, for which they have a key role.

NPMs are empowered to perform their mandate effectively considering that they are independent bodies to which States Parties guarantee their functional independence as well as the independence of their personnel, ensure that their experts have the required capabilities and professional knowledge and provide them with the necessary resources for their adequate functioning.

Alphabetical list of the 94 States parties to the OPCAT and their NPMs:
 CountryDate of ratification/accessionNational Preventive Mechanism (NPM)Communication from State Parties regarding the designation of the NPM
1Afghanistan17.04.2018NO NPM 
2Albania01.10.2003People's AdvocateCorrespondence
3Argentina15.11.2004Comité Nacional para la Prevención de la Tortura y Otros Tratos o Penas Crueles, Inhumanos o DegradantesCorrespondence
4Armenia14.09.2006Human Rights Defender of the Republic of ArmeniaCorrespondence
5Australia21.12.2017NO NPM 
6Austria04.12.2012Austrian Ombudsman BoardCorrespondence
7Azerbaijan28.01.2009The Commissioner for Human Rights (Ombudsman)Correspondence
8Belize04.09.2015 NO NPM 
9Benin20.09.2006NO NPM 
10Bolivia23.05.2006Servicio para la Prevención de la Tortura – SEPRET

Correspondence
Annexes: 1-2-3-4

Information contained in the confidential SPT visit report

11Bosnia and Herzegovina24.10.2008The Institution of Human Rights Ombudsman of Bosnia and HerzegovinaCorrespondence
12Brazil12.01.2007Mecanismo Nacional de Prevenção e Combate à Tortura (MNPCT)Correspondence
13Bulgaria01.06.2011Ombudsman of the Republic of BulgariaCorrespondence
14Burkina Faso07.07.2010Commission Nationale des Droits de l'HommeCorrespondence
15Burundi18.10.2013 NO NPM 
16Cabo Verde01.04.2016Commission Nationale des Droits Humains et CitoyennetéCorrespondence
1
17Cambodia30.03.2007National Committee against Torture and other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or PunishmentCorrespondence
18Central African Republic11.10.2016 NO NPM 
19Chile12.12.2008Mecanismo Nacional de Prevención de TorturaCorrespondence
20Congo26.04.2024NO NPM 
21Costa Rica01.12.2005Defensoria de los HabitantesCorrespondence
22Côte d’Ivoire01.03.2023NO NPM 
23Croatia25.04.2005OmbudspersonCorrespondence
24Cyprus29.04.2009Commissioner of Administration/OmbudsmanCorrespondence
25Czechia10.07.2006Public Defender of RightsCorrespondence and Annex I
26Democratic Republic of the Congo23.09.2010NO NPM 
27Denmark (and Greenland)25.06.2004

The Danish Parliamentary Ombudsman

 

Greenland's Ombudsperson

Correspondence

 

Correspondence

28Ecuador20.07.2010Defensoría del Pueblo 
29Estonia18.12.2006Office of the Chancellor of Justice (Ombudsman)Correspondence
30Finland08.10.2014The Parliamentary Ombudsman of FinlandCorrespondence
31France11.11.2008Contrôleur Général des lieux de privation de libertéCorrespondence
32Gabon22.09.2010NO NPM 
33Georgia09.08.2005Office of the Public DefenderCorrespondence
34Germany04.12.2008

The Federal Agency for the Prevention of Torture and the Join Commission of the Lander were designated as NPM

 

The first one will deal with federal institutions and the second one will deal with Lander authorities

Correspondence
35Ghana23.09.2016NO NPM 
36Greece11.02.2014The Greek OmbudsmanCorrespondence
37Guatemala09.06.2008Mecanismo Nacional de Prevención de la Tortura

Correspondence
Not for public distribution

 

Correspondence and Annex

38Honduras23.05.2006National Committee for the Prevention of Torture

Correspondence

 

Information contained in the public SPT visit report

39Hungary12.01.2012Commissioner for Fundamental RightsCorrespondence
40Iceland20.02.2019Althing OmbudsmanCorrespondence
41Italy25.04.2014National Guarantor for the Rights of Persons Deprived of LibertyCorrespondence
42Kazakhstan22.10.2008Commissioner for Human RightsCorrespondence
43Kyrgyzstan29.12.2008National Center on Prevention of Torture and other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or PunishmentCorrespondence
44Latvia10.12.2021Ombudsman’s OfficeCorrespondence
45Lebanon22.12.2008Sous-comité pour la prévention de la TortureCorrespondence
46Liberia22.09.2004NO NPM 
47Liechtenstein03.11.2006Corrections CommissionCorrespondence
48Lithuania20.01.2014Seimas Ombudsmen's OfficeCorrespondence
49Luxembourg19.05.2010Médiateur du Grand Duché de LuxembourgCorrespondence
50Madagascar21.09.2017NO NPM 
51Maldives15.02.2006Human Rights Commission

Correspondence

Public SPT Report on the first periodic visit to Maldives,
CAT/OP/MDV/1

52Mali12.05.2005Commission nationale des Droits de l'HommeCorrespondence
53Malta24.09.2003Board of Visitors for Detained Persons and the Board of Visitors of the PrisonsCorrespondence
54Mauritania03.10.2012Mécanisme national de prévention de la tortureCorrespondence
55Mauritius21.06.2005National Human Rights Commission

Correspondence

Information contained in the confidential SPT visit report

56Mexico11.04.2005Comisión Nacional de los Derechos Humanos

Correspondence

Information contained in the public SPT visit report

57Mongolia12.02.2015National Human Rights Commission of MongoliaCorrespondence
58Montenegro06.03.2009Protector of Human Rights and Freedoms, OmbudsmanCorrespondence
59Morocco24.11.2014Conseil National des Droits de l’Homme (CNDH)Correspondence
60Mozambique01.07.2014National Human Rights Commission of Mozambique.
61Netherlands28.09.2010Four national inspectorate bodies comprise the Dutch NPM, and are coordinated by the Inspectorate of Security and JusticeCorrespondence
62Nauru24.01.2013 NO NPM 
63New Zealand14.03.2007

Human Rights Commission (central NPM)

The Ombudsman's Office

The Children's Commissioner

The Police Complaints Authority

The Judge Advocate General

Correspondence
64Nicaragua25.02.2009Procuraduría para la Defensa de los Derechos HumanosCorrespondence
65Niger07.11.2014 NO NPM 
66Nigeria27.07.2009 NO NPM 
67North Macedonia13.02.2009

Ombudsman of the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia

The non-governmental organizations registered in the State Party and organizations which have acquired the status of humanitarian organizations in the State Party, may perform some of the competences of the NPM, in agreement with, and with prior consent of the Ombudsman.

Correspondence
68Norway27.06.2013Parliamentary Ombudsman for Public AdministrationCorrespondence
69Panama02.06.2011Ombuds Institution 
70Paraguay02.12.2005Comisión Nacional de Prevención de la Tortura y otros tratos o penas crueles, inhumanos o degradantes

See CAT/OP/PRY/2/Add.1, para. 6

Correspondence

71Peru14.09.2006Mecanismos Nacional De Prevencion de la Tortura - Defensoria del Pueblo de PerúCorrespondence
72Philippines17.04.2012 NO NPM 
73Poland14.09.2005The Commissioner for Civil Rights Protection (Ombudsman)Correspondence
74Portugal15.01.2013Provedor de Justiça (Ombudsman)Correspondence
75Republic of Moldova24.07.2006Centre for Human Rights (Ombudsman) in combination with the Consultative Council

Correspondence

Correspondence

Annexes: 1-2

76Romania02.07.2009The People's AdvocateCorrespondences
1-2
77Rwanda30.06.2015National Commission for Human RightsCorrespondence
78Senegal18.10.2006Observateur national des lieux de privation de libertéCorrespondence
79Serbia26.09.2006Protector of Citizens (Ombudsman)Correspondences
1-2
80Slovakia19.09.2023

Public Defender of Rights

Office of the Commissioner for Persons with Disabilities

Office of the Commissioner for Children

Correspondence
81Slovenia23.01.2007Human Rights OmbudsmanCorrespondence
82South Africa20.06.2019NO NPM 
83South Sudan30.04.2015 NO NPM 
84Spain04.04.2006El Defensor del PuebloCorrespondence
85Sri Lanka05.12.2017Human Rights CommissionCorrespondence
86State of Palestine29.12.2017NO NPM 
87Sweden14.09.2005Parliamentary Ombudsman and the Chancellor of JusticeCorrespondence
88Switzerland24.09.2009Commission nationale de prévention de la tortureCorrespondence
89Togo20.07.2010Commission Nationale des Droits de l'HommeCorrespondence
90Tunisia29.06.2011l'Instance Nationale pour la Prévention de la TortureCorrespondence
91Türkiye27.09.2011

National Human Rights Institution of Türkiye

Human Rights and Equality Institution of Türkiye

Correspondence
92United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland10.12.2003The UK NPM is comprised of 21 separate bodies, is led by a NPM chair and coordinated by HMIP. The Isle of Man NPM has three members.Correspondences
1-2-3-4
93Ukraine19.09.2006Parliament Commissioner for Human RightsCorrespondence
94Uruguay08.12.2005Institución Nacional de Derechos HumanosCorrespondence